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SMITHSONIAN

MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS.

VOL. V EL.

‘“SEVERY MAN IS A VALUABLE MEMBER OF SOCIETY WHO BY HIS OBSERVATIONS, RESEARCHES, AND EXPERIMENTS PROCURES KNOWLEDGE FOR MEN.” —SMITHSON.

“)

!

WASHINGTON: PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.

1867 a

nen PHILADELPHIA:

COLLINS, PRINTER, 705 JAYNE STREET.

CONTENTS.

Advertisement .- 7 : - 6 d 5 : . q

ARTICLE I. MonocraPH OF THE BATS OF Norra America. By H. Auten, M. D., Assistant Surgeon U. S. A. June, 1864. Pp. 110, and 68 wood-cuts. (165)

ARTICLE II. Lanp AND Fresh WATER SHELLS OF Nortn AMERICA. Parr ll. PuLMoNATA LIMNOPHILA AND THALASSO- puna. By W. G. Binney. September, 1865. Pp. 172, and 261 wood-cuts. (143)

ARTICLE III. Lanp AnD Fresu-WATER SHELLS of NorTH AMERICA- Parrlil. AMPULLARUD#, VALVATIDA}, VIVIPARIDA,

' FresH-WATER RIssoIDa, CycLopHorID#, TRUNCA- TELLID”, FREsH-WATER NERITIDA, Heuicinipz. By

W. G. Bryvey. September, 1865. Pp. 128 and

932 wood-cuts. (144)

ARTICLE IV. RESEARCHES UPON THE Hyproslin& AND ALLIED Forms: CHIEFLY MADE FROM MATERIALS IN THE MvusEvUM OF THE SuirasontaNn Institution. By, Dr. Wm. Srimpson. August, 1865. Pp. 64, and 29 cuts. (201)

ARTICLE V. MonoGRAPH OF AmeERICAN CoRBICULADZ (recent and fossil). Prepared for the Smithsonian Institution. By Tempte PRIME. December, 1865. Pp. 92 and 86 wood-cuts. (145)

ARTICLE VI. Cuecx List oF THE INVERTEBRATE Fossis of NorTH America. EocENE AND OLIGOCENE. By T. A. Cox- Rap. May, 1866. Pp. 46. (200)

ARTICLE VII. Cueck List oF THE INVERTEBRATE FOSSILS OF Nort America. Murocens. By F. B. Merex. November, 1864. Pp. 34. (183)

PAGE vil

vi

CONTENTS.

ARTICLE VIII. Cueck List oF THE INVERTEBRATE Fosstts or Nort

AmerRIcA. CRETACEOUS AND Jurassic. By F. B. Meek. April, 1864. Pp. 42. (177)

ARTICLE IX. CaratocuE oF MINERALS WITH THEIR FORMULAS, ETC.

Prepared for the Smithsonian Institution. By T. Eexieston. June, 1863. Pp. 56. (156)

ARTICLE xX. A Dictionary oF THE CHINOOK JARGON OR TRADE

LANGUAGE OF OREGON. Prepared for the Smithso- nian Institution. By GrorGe Gipss. March, 1863. Pp. 60. (161)

ARTICLE XI. Insrructions ror RESEARCH RELATIVE To THE ETHNO-

LOGY AND PuiLotocy or AmERIcA. Prepared for the Smithsonian Institution. ByGrorce Gisss. March, 1863. Pp. 54. (160)

ARTICLE XII. List or Works PvusuisHepD BY THE SMITHSONIAN InsTI-

tTuTiox. January, 1866. Pp. 12. (203)

ADVERTISEMENT.

THE present series, entitled ‘‘ Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- lections,” is intended to embrace all the publications issued directly by the Smithsonian Institution in octavo form ; those in quarto con- stituting the ‘Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge.” The quarto series includes memoirs embracing the records of extended original investigations and researches resulting in what are be- lieved to be new truths, and constituting positive additions to the sum of human knowledge. The octavo series is designed to con- tain reports on the present state of our knowledge of particular branches of science : instructions for collecting and digesting facts and materials for research: lists and synopses of species of the organic and inorganic world: museum catalogues: reports of ex- plorations: aids to bibliographical investigations, etc., generally prepared at the express request of the Institution, and at its: expense.

The position of a work in one or the other of the two series will sometimes depend upon whether the required illustrations can be presented more conveniently in the quarto or the octavo form.

In the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, as well as in the present series, each article is separately paged and indexed, and the actual date of its publication is that given on its special title- page, and not that of the volume in which it is placed. In many cases, works have been published, and largely distributed, years before their combination into volumes.

While due care is taken on the part of the Smithsonian Insti- tution to insure a proper standard of excellence in its publications, it will be readily understood that it cannot hold itself responsible for the facts and conclusions of the authors, as it is impossible in most cases to verify their statements.

JOSEPH HENRY, Secretary S. 1.

Givin)

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS. a

MONOGRAPH

OF THE

BATS OF NORTH AMERTCA.

BY He A nN M.D. ASSIST. SURGEON, U.S. A. .

WASHINGTON: SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION:

JUNE, 1864.

ADVERTISEMENT.

TueE following memoir, by Dr. Allen, is designed to exhibit the present state of our knowledge respecting the species of Chei- roptera, or bats, found in America, north of Mexico, and their general geographical distribution. It is based principally on the specimens in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, although the collections of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural. Sciences and of the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Cambridge have also been consulted.

JOSEPH HENRY, Secretary S. I.

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, Wasuineton, April 26, 1864,

PHILADELPHIA: COLLINS, PRINTER .

(ii )

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE Advertisement . : : : : : : é ell Introduction : : : : s : , . . hans Artificial Key to the Gitsra : ; : ; ; xxiii

Fam. MEGADERMATIDA. : C : - cC : F oneal Macrortus, Gray ; : : : ; ; aes! 3

Macrotus californicus, Baird. : 5 5 ° Fam. NOCTILIONIDA . ; : : . : ; : Seo Nycrinomus, Geoff. . é : é : : Oa Nyctinomus nasutus, 7’omes c : : : mE Fam. VESPERTILIONIDA : 5 : : : : : + Dalal Nycricesus, Raf. ; : . . : ; ames Nycticejus crepuscularis, Alon 5 : < snes Lasiurus, Raf. . : 7 5 : : R : od Lasiurus noveboracensis, Tomes ; : : ils Lasiurus cinereus, Allen. : : C ec Lasiurus intermedius, Allen : 5 . 5 ce ge Scoropuitus, Leach . 3 : : ; ; . Ath Scotophilus carolinensis, Allen . : : - eS Scotophilus fuscus, Allen . ; : : : aol Scotophilus ceorgianus, Allen . 7 : 5 3 30 Scotophilus noctivagans, Lec. . 5 ° 5 5 Be

Scotophilus hesperus, Allen : : : : an tao Vespertitio, Keys. & Blas. . ; : : é . 46 Vespertilio evotis, Allen. : , : ; . 48 Vespertilio subulatus, Say . . ; : 5 @il Vespertilio affinis, Allen . : : c : - 53 Vespertilio lucifugus, Lec. . ; : . : - 55

Vespertilio yumanensis, Allen. z : . 58 Vespertilio nitidus, Allen . . . : : 60 Synotus, Keys. & Blas. - : C : c c 7 62 Synotus macrotis, Allen. : ° c - = 60 Synotus townsendii, Wagner. . : : = 500 Awnrtrozous, Allen 4 C : A ; 5 G0

Antrozous pallidus, Allen . : ° - : OS

Appendix . 7 : = : ° : : : oil Alphabetical Index . . : ; : . 6 , os

INTRODUCTION.

Amona the numerous agents which Nature employs for re- stricting the excessive increase of the insect world, the bats hold a conspicuous position. Eminently adapted to an animal regimen, the vast majority of these animals are exclusively insectivorous in their habits. Mosquitos, gnats, moths, and even the heavily mailed nocturnal Coleoptera, fall victims in large numbers to their voracious appetites. Certain members of the order, such as Flying Foxes (PTERoPpopID*#), are strictly frugivorous, it is true ; and others, as the Dog-bat of Surinam (Noctula leporina), classified as an insect-eating bat, partakes occasionally of fruit in addition to its more animal diet; none of the species found in this country, however, are known to subsist on any other than insect food. In this respect they hold a decided relationship to certain birds, and it is interesting to observe how, under differ- ent circumstances, these widely separated animals serve us to the same end. The functions which the latter perform during the day, the former assume in the evening. The latter prey upon the diurnal insects, while the former feed exclusively upon the crepuscular and nocturnal kinds. The disappearance of the birds of day is a signal for the advent of the dusky host, which, as it were, temporarily relieve from duty their more brilliant rivals in guarding the interests of Nature.

But, while thus connected with birds in their position in the world’s economy, bats have none of that grace of form, or beauty of coloring so characteristic of the others. Their bodies are cluinsy and repulsive; their hues are dull and unattractive—nor can the eye dwell with pleasure upon their grotesque and awk-

ext

vl INTRODUCTION.

ward motions. This aversion—so universally evinced toward _ these little animals—is heightened by the associations of the time and place of their daily appearance. Attendant, as they are, upon the quiet hours of twilight, when the thickening gloom is conducive to the development of superstitious feeling, bats have always been associated with ideas of the horrible and the unknown. In olden times, when the imagination of the people exceeded the accuracy of their observations, it was one of the numerous monsters inhabiting their caverns and forests. It has done service in many a legend; its bite was fatal; it was the emblem of haunted houses; its wings bore up the dragon slain by St. George.

It is easy to trace from this early impression the permanent position that the bat, as an emblem of the repulsive, held in letters and the arts. It is mentioned in the Book of Leviticus as one of the unclean things. Its image is rudely carved upon the tombs of the ancient Egyptians. The Greeks consecrated it to Proserpine. It is part of the infernal potion of the witches in Macbeth, while Ariel employs it in his erratic flights. In art, its wings have entered largely into the creation of those composite horrors—evil spirits, nor have modern artists escaped from the absurdity of encumbering the Satan of Holy Writ with like appendages.’ Of this association with the monstrous the in- telligent observer ceases to take note when the finer beauties of structure develop themselves under his gaze. Upon acquaintance he learns, perhaps with surprise, that, in anatomical and physio- logical peculiarities, and zoological position, the bat is a subject for study worthy of the attention of the most contemplative. In- deed, no order of animals is more interesting, and none has received greater attention from the hands of savans.

The early pioneers of natural history were far astray in their endeavors to correctly define the nature and position of the bat.

“Some authors place bats among the birds, because they are able to fly through the air; while others assign them a_ position

' To this fancy of the ancients of placing the wings of a bat upon demons is happily opposed the sweet conceit of poets in adorning the figures of angels and cherubim with the wings of birds. The wing of a bat is sombre and angular—that of a bird is of delicate hues and replete with curves. It is therefore poetic justice to have the one become an emblem of the infernal as the other is an expression of the heavenly form.

INTRODUCTION. vii

.among the quadrupeds, because they can walk on the earth. Some again, who admitted the mammalian nature of the crea- tures, scattered them at intervals through the scale of animated beings, heedless of any distinction excepting the single charac- teristic in which they took their stand, and by which they judged every animal. These are but a few of the diverse opinions which prevailed among the naturalists of former times, among which the most ingeniously quaint is that which places the bat and ostrich in the same order, because the bat has wings and the ostrich has not.’

Without reviewing the recorded errors of these observers, we will be content to calf the attention of the reader to the following brief account of the structure of flying animals, so that the true position of the bat among them may be definitely fixed.

There are two distinct types of modification which the verte- brate skeleton has undergone in adapting the animal for flight, both of which depend upon some peculiarity in the structure of the anterior extremities ; and in order to obtain a correct opinion of them we propose to cast a glance at each in turn.

Plan of bony structure of the wings of flying vertebrate animals.

I. Wing membrane supported by all fingers—

a. Bones of carpus -separat- Bats (Vespertilio), order of Mam.

ed; flight maintained by

dermal expanse II. Wing membrane supported by the 4th

finger only (which is immensely de- veloped), the others remaining free— Pterodactyles, order of Rept.

i ON

III. Bones of metacarpus 2-3 in number—

b. Bones of carpus united ; Feathers not radiating— flight maintained by der- } Living birds (Aves)—class. | IV. Bones of metacarpus 4 in number— | Feathers radiating— C Archxopteryx (AVES)—subclass.

mal appendages

1 Wood, Nat. Hist. I (Mam.), 114.

vill INTRODUCTION.

I. The Bart, in which the humerus is long and slender, with a small pectoral ridge. Ulna rudimentary, attached to the curved radius, which coustitutes the bulk of the forearm; carpus composed of

tinct; the phalanges generally 2 in number; thumb, and in some the index finger surmounted by a claw.

[I. The Preropacrye, in which the humerus is short and straight, very broad at head, with angular and prominent pectoral ridge ; ulna and radius distinct, of nearly equal size; carpus composed of 5 bones; metacarpus of 4 bones, separate and distinct; Ist finger with 3 joints, 2d with 4, 3d with 5, 4th with 4 joints, all provided with claws, with the exception of the 4th, which is remarkable for the extraordinary development of its several joints. It is from this last mentioned finger to the base of the foot that the skin was stretched by which the animal was en- abled to fly.

| 6 bones; the metacarpal bones 5 in number, separate and dis- a.

( Ill. The Bren, in which the humerus is curved, more or less slender ; pectoral ridge prominent, not angular; ulna large, curved, not | united with the slender and more diminutive radius; carpus of 2 bones; metacarpus of 2, sometimes of 3 bones—the first being | small and cylindrical, the other two of larger dimensions and united so as to form a bone resembling the bones of the forearm ; ulnar phalanx of 1 joint, united to the radial which is composed | of 2.

The power of sustaining flight not dependent upon the ex- | pansion of skin, but upon the excessive development of dermal appendages (feathers). | |

b-2 IV. The ARcumoPTERYX! agrees with the typical bird in general particu-

lars, but differs in the number of the metacarpal bones, which are here 4in number: the 1st and 2d are slender, free and separate from one another; the 3d and 4th bear considerable resemblance to those of extant birds, in being large, stout, and closely approxi- mated; but are not, however, united.

Flight is supposed to have been maintained in the same man- ner as in living birds.

! Archeopteryx lithographica, H. von Meyer, a fossil of the Lower Jurassic formation of Germany, obtained from the lithographic stone at Solenhofen. It was first made known to science by Prof. Wagner, at a meeting of the Mathematico-Physical Class of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Munich, in 1861, and was more minutely described, by H. Hermann von Meyer, in Jahrbuch fir Mineralogie, 1861, 561.

This remarkable fossil, which is at present exciting such profound attention among anatomists, combines the characters of the bird and the reptile so intimately that it was for a time a matter of doubt to which

INTRODUCTION. ix

DIAGRAM OF THE BONES OF ANTERIOR EXTREMITIES OF FLYING VERTEBRATES.

I. Bat.—a. Scapula. 6. Humerus. ¢. Radius. d. Rudiment of ulna ancbylosed to radius. e. Carpus. jf. Metacarpus. g. Pha-

langes. Il. PreropacTyLe.—References the same as in Fig. I.

Ill. Birp.—References as in Fig. I. The dotted outline of the second ungual phalanx indicates the occasional occurrence of a claw at

this point. The majority of birds are without it.

IV. Arcu#ZopreRYxX.—References as in Fig. I. The dotted outlines seen

at carpus and the terminal phalanges are restored portions.

x INTRODUCTION.

In addition to the instances already given, certain fishes, as the Exocetus and Dactylopterus, possess the power of suStaining true flight. The mechanism that lifts the body of the fish from the water, and upholds it for a short time in the air, is obtained in the pectoral fins, which, in these animals, are enormously de- veloped. The structure of these fins is homologous to that of the anterior extremities of other vertebrates—their form alone being modified to adapt the animal to the medium in which it is placed. Thus we have, in each great subdivision of vertebrate animals, a representative capable of sustaining flight.

Another somewhat similar modification of the animal economy is met with in a few animals of arboreal habits. Here a peculiar arrangement of the skin is observed, which enables the possessor to break the force of downward leaps. In the Flying Lemur (Galeopithecus), in the Flying Squirrel (Pieromys), and in the Flying Opossum (Petaurista), the furred skin extends laterally from the sides of the body, and is attached to anterior and posterior extremities at the metacarpal and metatarsal regions respectively. The only instance of osteological development is obtained in the Dragon (Draco volans), a small lizard from Sumatra, in which long, transverse processes from either side of the lumbar vertebre sup- port a thin membranous growth which is capable of being opened and shut by means of muscles attached to the bony frame-work.

Anatomy.—From the consideration of the mechanism of the wings of bats, it is an easy transition to speak of their anatomy.

The bones of Chetroptera, though incapable of receiving air from the surrounding medium, are nevertheless of very light

class it could be assigned. Its peculiarities consist of a continuation of the bones of the vertebral column posteriorly to the number of twenty segments, thus creating a tail seven inches in length; of the metacarpal bones, being composed of four bones instead of two or three as in living birds; and of the reptilian character of the pelvis.

For descriptions concerning this curious animal the reader is referred to the original paper by M. von Meyer, /oc. cit. ; an article in The Intellectual Observer, for Dec. 1862 (with, plate), by Wm. H. Woodward; an article in Amer. Journ. Sci. and Arts, 2d series, XXXV, May, 1863, 129 (Prof. Dana); an article in Phil. Trans. CLIII, part I, 1863, 33, pl. 1 to 4 (Prof. Owen). The last mentioned paper is the most complete on the subject, and is accompanied with a handsome full size plate of the fossil.

It is from this memoir that the outline engraving on the opposite page has in part been taken.

INTRODUCTION, xi

structure. The skeleton of a bat is expressive of lightness and tenuity® The bones of the common Brown Bat (V. subulatus), from which this description is taken, weighed but eleven grains. .

The skull is of proportionate large size, rounded at cranium The parietal crest, generally faintly produced, is frequently entirely absent; at the superior angle of occipital bone a faintly defined triangular patch is seen in those skulls where the temporal fosse on either side have not extended quite the length of the side of cranium. Orbit incomplete ; temporal fosse very large ; zygomata perfect, generally slightly curvilinear, somewhat de- pressed in centre. Anterior nares large, sub-circular, extending back on the palate to a level with the canine teeth. Intermaxillary bones rudimentary and not meeting in front. The bones of the cranium are without diploe, and the interior of the skull without tentorium. Auditory bulle (viz., the circular appendages to the external meatus) very large. Occipital condyles broad; fora- men magnum large, sub-oval, somewhat depressed. The maxillary bones are stout, and support all the teeth, excepting the incisors, which are held in position by the inter-maxillary bones.

The lower jaw is stout, receding at symphysis, where it is very high, and extends backwards to a level with the 2d premolar tooth; coronoid process high, blunt, strongly marked externally to its base with the concave surface for the insertion of temporal muscle. The anterior border is vertical, the superior and pos- terior are slightly oblique, ending in the condyloid process; the articulating head of which is arranged transversely to the axis of the bone. The ramus of the jaw is turned slightly outward, and is thin and compressed. A large hamular process is con- spicuous immediately inferior to the articulating surface.

The éeeth are of variable number—being in some snecies as low as 30, in others as high as 38. This variation, combined with differences in their contour, furnish characters of great importance in the classification of these animals. The principal differences are seen in the number of the incisors and molars. The usual number of incisors is 4 in the upper, and 6 in the lower jaw. The number is never in excess of this, though frequently falling short of it. Thus, in some genera there are but 2 incisors above and 4 below; or there may be none above and but 2 below When the number in the upper jaw is confined to 2 teeth the central incisors are wanting. The number in the lower jaw is

xil INTRODUCTION.

always 6 in the family Vespertilionide, with the exception of the Californian genus Antrozous, which has here but 4 incisors. In this particular it shows evidence of its affinity with the family Phyllostomidz, in which 4 incisors in the lower jaw is the normal number.

The molars are of two kinds: the true molars, and the false or premolars. The former are the larger and situated most pos- teriorly, the latter are small, placed between the true molars and the canines, and appear to unite the characters of both these teeth. The premolar adjoining the first molar bears a stronger resemblance to the grinders than to the premolar adjacent to the canine, which shows decided resemblance to the eye tooth. The number of molars (true and false) in any bat never exceeds 6 above and 6 below. In any diminution of this number the first premolar is always wanting.

The minute description of the teeth is reserved for the remarks under each species. It will be well in this place, however, to de- fine the true molars, and since they are not subject to any material variation in shape no mention of them will be made in the text.

The true molars are 3 in number, both above and below. In the upper jaw they are of a sub-triangular shape, wider than long, their bases being outward, and their apices rounded and blunt. The first and second teeth have two V-shaped cusps upon the articulating surface of the crown—the anterior border of each cusp being more prominent than the posterior. The union of these two cusps constitutes what is known as the W-shaped crown. This irregularity is occasioned by the sinuate incurving of the enamel of the tooth; it eminently adapts the organ for the mastication of insect food. The inner portion of the articulating face is lower than the outer, is of a rounded shape, and is furnished with but one cusp, which, however, placed immediately behind the anterior triangular cusp, runs obscurely backwards to behind the posterior cusp, giving these teeth the appearance of being quadri-cuspid. The third molar, much smaller than the preceding, has a straight anterior and a rounded posterior surface ; the external face of crown is irregular and sinuate, posterior unicuspid.

In the lower jaw the molars are of equal size. They are longer than wide. Each tooth is made up of two V-shaped cusps, their

INTRODUCTION. xiil

bases lying inwards, their apices very acute. The anterior cusp is wider and somewhat higher than the posterior.

The vertebral column is remarkable for the absence of any prominent processes. The cervical vertebre are little more than slender rings of bones surrounding a spinal marrow of unusual width. The dorsal are also very uniform in appearance, each bone having its sides furnished with a slightly elevated tubercle. The ribs attached to them are relatively broad, very long, and much curved, thus giving the thorax a somewhat compressed appearance. The first rib is remarkable for its extreme breadth, especially at the point where it articulates with the sternum, being here twice the width of the clavicle. The sternum is of great strength. The manubrium is markedly crested, broad and flat at base whence two blunt, obtuse ale spring from either side to articulate with the clavicle and first rib. The gladiolus and xyphus are large and robust; the latter has upon its inferior extremity an expanded cartilaginous piece, which is continuous with the linea alba. The object of this excessive development of the sternum is evident: the immense power employed in the maintenance of flight necessitating the presence of strong osseous points for attachment of the muscles. The clavicle is long, much arched, and slightly flattened from before backwards. The scapula is of a sub-rhomboid shape. At the upper third of its dorsal surface the dorsal spine runs obliquely forwards and terminates in the large acromion. The coracoid process is also conspicuous, and projects at right angles from the scapula parallel with a similar process from the internal superior angle of the shoulder blade. The humerus is long, cylindrical; head small, scarcely longer than shaft ; two processes before and behind the articulation are observed for the insertion of the scapular muscles. The inferior extremity has but one articular facet. The forearm consists of the radius alone, the ulna being entirely absent or confined to a mere rudiment attached to the upper posterior part of the radius. The radius is slightly arched, much larger than humerus, and like it without any process. The carpus is composed of 6 bones, of which the largest supports the radius. The bones of the metacarpus are greatly deveioped in length, constituting the bony frame-work upon which the wing membranes are stretched. The thumb has two joints, the terminal one of which is surrounded by a claw, the others having generally

x_¥ INTRODUCTION.

three joints each—long and cylindrical. The pelvis is slender and narrow. ‘The ilii are elongated, not widened, and markedly con- vex on outer surfaces; ischia relatively large, and converging ; pubis rather slender. The ossa innominata are readily disunited at symphysis, their union to the sacrum being firmer. Obturator foramen large and elliptical. Both femur and tibia are long eylin- drical bones, presenting no features of interest. The fibula is

- slender, acuminate and imperfect; it arises from the base of the

tibia, and terminates midway up that bone. By the partial ever- sion of the lower extremity it appears to lie to the inner side of the tibia. The foes are five in number and armed with sharply curved claws ; the caleaneum is enormously developed as a spicula of bone, running obliquely downwards and inwards towards the tail, and inclosed within the border of the interfemoral membrane. The termination of this bone is abrupt in some species, in others its extremity blends with the free edge of the membrane. The fail is composed of nine joints in the majority of bats, which diminish in width from above downwards; the tip of the tail may or may not be included in the interfemoral membrane.

Mr. Thomas Bell, in reviewing the osteology of the bat, uses the following language :—

“The whole of this structure is so perfectly adapted to the peculiar habits of the animals as to require no comment. The ereat development of the ribs, sternum, and scapula for the attach- ment of strong muscles of flight ; the length and strength of the clavicle ; the extension of all the bones of the anterior extremity, all admirably tend to fulfil their obvious end.”—Cyclopedia of Anat. and Phys., art. Chetropiera.

The digestive apparatus is very simple, as might be supposed from the nature of the food upon which these animals subsist. The stomach is simple, with small fundus. The intestine is short, measuring but one and a half times the length of the body, and in many species without a cecum.

The nervous system is highly developed, especially the special senses of hearing and of touch. The ears, both internally and externally, are highly perfected. The cochlea are disproportion- ately large as compared with the size of the semicircular canals. The ampulle, as already seen, are very large. To this osseous structure, for the reception of sound, is added the complicated auricle with which all insectivorous bats are provided. These

INTRODUCTION. XV

are frequently much larger than the head, and of great variety of shapes: their variations of form being of great importance in classification.

The internal border is generally much curved, and terminates in an obtuse or acute projection, called the internal basal lobe (c) ; the external border of the ear is of an irregular convex contour, and ends anteriorly in a blunt and thickened fold of membrane— the external basal lobe (d).1| The tragus, or oreillon (e), is an upright growth of membrane extending from the base of the auricle up the centre of the external ear. The function of this appendage is not known; it probably acts as a valve to prevent foreign substances entering the ear, or to prevent the volume of sound received from such a large auricle in impinging too forcibly upon the delicate tympanum.

The nose is also frequently the seat of extensive dermal growths. These appendages, situated about the nostrils, may be simple up- right, triangular folds of skin, or they may be exceedingly compli- cated in structure. No North American bat, with but one ex- ception (IL. californicus), has such a development. Though the external ear is evidently intended to augment the sense of hear- ing, there is some doubt whether the nose leaves hold the same relation to the olfactory sense. These growths are composed of reduplications of skin, and are not related to the lining mem- brane of the nose. hey are probably the agents for augmenting the sense of touch alone, and in this way act conjointly with the wing membranes.

Ii is in this latter structure that the sense of touch chiefly re- sides. ‘The bones of the extremities being covered on either side with an enduplication of skin, form a frame-work upon both sides

| In the above cut the external basal lobe has been turned backwards to disclose the base of tragus.

xvi INTRODUCTION.

of which the papillx of touch are extensively distributed. This function, in many places, is probably aided by the delicate hairs which are sparsely distributed linearly upon the under surfaces of the membranes. These may perform a function analogous to that observed in the labial whiskers which are so prominent in the Felide. Spallanzani was the first to notice the high development to which this sense had been brought in these animals. His ex- periment is well known, but will bear repetition here :—

“Tn 1793 Spallanzani put out the eyes of a bat, and observed that it appeared to fly with as much ease as before, and without striking against objects in its way, following the course of a ceil- ing, and avoiding, with accuracy, everything against which it was expected to strike. Not only were blinded bats capable of avoiding such objects as parts of a building, but they shunned, with equal address, the most delicate obstacles, even silken threads, stretched in such a manner as to leave just space enough for them to pass with their wings expanded. When these threads were placed closer together, the bats contracted their wings, in order to pass between them without touching. They also passed with the same security between branches of trees placed to inter- cept them, and suspended themselves by the wall, &ec. with as much ease as if they could see distinctly.”—Godman’s Amer. Nat. Hist. VY, 183) 5%.

Habits.—The habits of these animals are but little known. We possess a general knowledge that they are of nocturnal and cre- puscular habits; that they feed upon night insects; that they frequent in their hours of repose secluded retreats in common with other nocturnal animals. To this circumstance, as much as any other, our ignorance of their habits is chiefly due. The darkness and unpleasant surroundings of their haunts are suffi- cient obstacles to cool the ardor of the most enthusiastic naturalist. Opportunities are offered occasionally, however, to observe their flight, and their habits in repose, by their accidental entrance into the open apartments of our dwellings in warm weather.

' In this connection I take the liberty of quoting from Mr. Audubon’s “Eccentric Naturalist,’ a sketch which appeared in the Ornithological Biography” of that author. The hero of this sketch is well known to have been M. Rafinesque. The incident narrated was one of a series of adventures equally ludicrous which Mr. Audubon graphically narrates :—

** When it was waxed late I showed him to the apartment intended for

INTRODUCTION. xvii

Under these circumstances they can be readily caught, and although bearing captivity poorly, can,yet with care be sustained for some time. In this condition they will take small pieces of raw meat with avidity, though—strange as it may appear— refuse to partake of insects. They appear to drink largely of water. A small Brown Bat, which I once caught and caged, would lap up water eagerly when all food was refused.

The first act of the bat, after emerging in the evening from its retreat, is to fly to the water. The following account illus- trating this peculiarity, as well as showing the enormous numbers in which these animals will live together, is of great interest. It is from the pen of M. Figaniere, Minister to this country from Portugal, in a letter addressed to Prof. Henry, Secretary of Smithsonian Institution :—

“In the winter of 1859, having purchased the property known as Seneca Point, on the margin of the Northeast River, near Charlestown, in Cecil County, Maryland, we took possession of it in May of the next year. The dwelling is a brick structure covered with slate in the form of an L, two-storied, with garret, cellars, and a stone laundry and milk house attached. Having been uninhabited for several years it exhibited the appearance, with the exception of one or two rooms, of desolation and neglect, with damp, black walls, all quite unexpected, as it had been but very slightly examined, and was represented in good habitable condition, merely requiring some few repairs and a little painting.

“The boxes, bundles and other packages of furniture which had preceded us, lay scattered around and within the dwelling: these, with the exception of some mattresses and bedding for

him during his stay, and endeavored to render him comfortable, leaving him writing material in abundance. I was indeed heartily glad to have a naturalist under my roof. We had all retired to rest. Every person I imagined was in deep slumber, save myself, when of a sudden I heard a great uproar in the naturalist’s room. I got up, reached the place in a few moments, and opened the door, when, to my astonishment, I saw my guest running about the room naked, holding the handle of my favorite violin, the body of which he had battered to pieces against the walls in attempting to kill the bats, which had entered by the open window, probably attracted by the insects flying around his candle. I stood amazed, but he continued running round and round, until he was fairly exhausted ; when he begged me to procure one of the animals for him, as he felt convinced they belonged to a ‘new species.’ B

xviii INTRODUCTION.

immediate use, were hastily arranged for unpacking and placing in order at leisure. Thegweather, which was beautiful, balmy and warm, invited us towards evening to out-door enjoyment and rest after a fatiguing day of travel and active labor; but chairs, settees and benches were scarcely occupied by us on the piazza and lawn, when to our amazement, and the horror of the female portion of our party, small black bats made their appearance in immense numbers, flickering around the premises, rushing in and out of doors and through open windoavs—almost obscuring the early twilight, and causing a general stampede of the ladies, who