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FLOWERS OF THE FIELD

Fig. 29. Field Scabious. - 'Knautia arvensis}..

—- ss

FLOWERS

mr THE FIELD

BY DHE LALE

REY. CA. JOHNS, BA. LS.

THIRTY-THIRD EDITION

Entirely revised by G §.*BOULGER, F.LS., F.GS.

LECTURER ON BOTANY IN THE CITY OF LONDON COLLEGE

HONORARY PROFESSOR OF NATURAL HISTORY, ROYAL AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE

WITH PORTRAIT, MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR, AND 64 COLOURED PLATES

z [ys as . AIG «we

aX it LORK

RY

BOTANICAL GARDEN LONDON SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE

NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, W.C.3 43, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, E.C. BRIGHTON : 120, NORTH STREET New York: E S. GORHAM

IQII

y ae 4 3 i ref : r ' - - i. Dpeds a wie ne t ae \ > *

~< PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE GENERAL « LITERATURE COMMITTEE

Dedicated

BY GRACIOUS PERMISSION

TO

H.R.H. PRINCESS ALEXANDER

OF TECK

~

THE REV. CHARLES ALEXANDER JOHNS

MEMOIR OF THE REV. CHARLES ALEXANDER JOHNS

WHEN, in 1900, I had completed my first revision of Johns “Flowers of the Field for its twenty-ninth re-issue, I had a kindly appreciative letter from the veteran chief of British botanists, Sir Joseph Hooker. In this he writes: “When you shall have to prepare a still other Edition I venture to suggest that a few lines of Preface as to who Johns was; and an outline of the successive enlargements of his work would be very interesting.” The time -has now arrived when this suggestion can be adopted, though the story to be told is but a simple tale of long-continued literary industry prompted by an enthusiastic love of Nature and a zeal for education

Charles Alexander Johns was a Cornishman by descent, al- though he happened to be born in Plymouth. He was the grandson of Tremenheere Johns, a solicitor of Helston, his father being Henry Incledon Johns, and he was born on the last day of the year 1811.

In 1832 Henry Incledon Johns published by subscription a ~ little volume entitled ‘Poems addressed by a Father to his Chil- dren, with Extracts from the Diary of a Pedestrian and a Memoir of the Author.” From this it appears that the father of the author of ‘Flowers of the Field” was fond of long solitary rambles, of drawing, of poetry and of flowers. He was, however, placed as junior clerk in a bank at Devonport, then Plymouth Dock ; and, after many years, became co-partner in the concern. In 1825, however, the bank failed, and Henry Johns was compelled to fall back on his early artistic attainments and become a drawing-master. On the title- page of his ‘‘ Poems he is described as Professor of Drawing to the Plymouth New Grammar School, and he tells how, as his own health failed, he was assisted in his teaching by his daughter. The excellence of Miss Johns’ illustrations have undoubtedly contributed largely to the success of her brother Charles’s chief work. Henry Johns had married in 1803; and, though there is

1X

x MEMOIR

but little intrinsic value in his poems, they evince a love of flowers and a spirit of piety. One of them begins—

*“ Come Charles and Sophia and Emily too, Come down the green lane, papa’s naught else to do”;

and in the list of subscribers appear the names of the Rev. Derwent Coleridge and of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Johns of Carrickfergus, presumably the poet’s brother and sister-in-law, from whom the botanist derived his second Christian name.

Meanwhile, before he was twenty, Charles Alexander Johns had, in 1831, become second master of Helston Grammar School under Derwent Coleridge, the son of the great poet-metaphysician and himself a linguist of unusual gifts. Coleridge had been ap- pointed head-master soon after his ordination in 1825, and when, in 1841, he was chosen first Principal of St. Mark’s College, Chelsea, Johns soon succeeded him at Helston, being head-master there from June 1843 to December 1847. ‘Their most distinguished pupil was undoubtedly Charles Kingsley, whose father was vicar of Clovelly when the boy entered the school in 1832, but had been preferred to the rectory of St. Luke’s, Chelsea, before he entered King’s College, London, in 1836. In her “‘ Life” of her husband Mrs. Kingsley writes (vol. i, p. 23)—

** At Helston, too, he found as second-master the Rev. Charles A. Johns, afterwards himself head-master, who made himself the companion of his young pupil, encouraging his taste, or rather passion, for botany, going long rambles with him on the neighbouring moors and on the sea-coast, in search of wild flowers, and helping him in the study which each loved so well. In later years, when both were living in Hampshire, Mr. Johns laboured successfully for the cause of physical science in the city of Winchester, where his name will long be remembered in conjunction once more with that of his former pupil and distinguished friend.”

Before coming to Helston, Kingsley had been initiated in the study of conchology by Dr. Turton, who lived near Clovelly ; but in Johns he found an all-round naturalist of the old-fashioned out- of-door school to whom flowers and birds, trees, sea-weeds, shells or insects were alike of interest.

Johns began his forty years of authorship in 1833 with a modest volume of Chronological Rhymes on English History,” which went into several editions ; and was followed by what we may well suppose to have been the more congenial ‘‘ Flora Sacra,” published in 1840.

In 1841 he graduated as Bachelor of Arts at Trinity College, Dublin, and, in the same year, was ordained deacon, not, however, becoming a priest until 1848.

Meanwhile, in 1847, he began the publication of his popular

MEMOIR x1

“Botanical Rambles,” in four parts according to the seasons, which was not completed until 1852; and about the same time he made his most important botanical discovery, viz. the wealth of rarities on the promontory of the Lizard. In his Notes on British Plants,” contributed to Hooker’s London Journal of Botany” in 1847, Johns was the first to record 77</olium strictum as a British plant, and was also the first to add Z: procumbens, T: filiforme and Thalictrum minus to the list for Cornwall. His only geological publication was a note “On the Landslip at the Lizard” in the “Journal of the Geological Society for 1848 ; and in that year he published one of his most successful little books, ‘* A Week at the Lizard,” which has been recently described by a writer of great local knowledge as ‘‘ still our only reliable guide to that romantic corner of Cornwall.”

Although Johns availed himself, of course, of the researches and records of his predecessors, he was an assiduous collector during most of his life, not only in Cornwall, but also in the mountains of both the north and the south of Ireland, when he was an undergraduate in Dublin, and in other districts in his later years.

A former pupil, Mr. W. F. Collier, writing in the ‘Cornish Magazine” (vol. il, pp. 117-8), says—

‘* My recollection as a schoolboy of Charles Alexander Johns is, that he was not a good teacher, and did not make his lessons interesting, as Derwent Coleridge did. He heard lessons sharply enough, but was often all the time setting up specimens of botany, no doubt for publication, as I thought them beautifully done. I well remember now some pretty specimens of mosses in flower, set up whilst [ was hammering over Virgil. He sat all school-time with us, in his own desk, whilst Derwent Coleridge was in his den. . . whence he issued at times to lecture the boys or to administer punishment. C. A. Johns proved himself afterwards to be a good teacher, and had a preparatory school of his own near Winchester, of such good repute that it was difficult, and took some time, to get a boy into it. My schoolboy impression of his teaching power must therefore be held to be not justified. He used to take some of the older boys out with him to study botany on holidays and half-holidays, and we looked on the tin cases for holding specimens, which they hung round their shoulders, as a priggish sort of affair, not to be compared for a moment with the manly fishing-basket.”

Johns left Helston at the end of 1847, and took a house in Walpole Street, Chelsea ; but in the following summer he became incumbent of Beenham, near Newbury, where he was living at the time of the first publication of ‘‘ Flowers of the Field.” In 1856 he established a private school at Callipers Hall, near Rickmansworth, remaining there till 1863.

“First Steps to Botany,” published in 1853, was introductory to Flowers of the Field,” which first appeared in the same year,

Xii MEMOIR

followed by Birds’ Nests (1854) and Birds of the Wood and Field (1859-1862), leading up to Birds in their Haunts,” which still ranks as a standard introduction to British ornithology.

Johns opened Winton House, Winchester, in 1863, as a private school for boys; and, a few years later, he founded the Winchester Literary and Scientific Society, of which he became President, and to which his last scientific works, papers on the fall of the leaf, on Vesuvius, and on a collection of shells, were communicated. He died at Winton House on June 28, 1874.

We have not been able to enumerate his many educational publications, though all his chief scientific work has been men- tioned. It will, however, be interesting for us to trace the history of “‘ Flowers of the Field.” As first published in 1853, it consisted of two volumes, with an introduction of 59 pages, 32 of which were devoted to the Linnzan system, and 380 pages of text in the first and 273 pages in the second. ‘The book ended with Zostera, grasses and sedges being omitted, and trees being barely men- tioned. It was soon afterwards issued in one volume, with the same introduction and 664 pages of text, and remained well-nigh unchanged until 1892, being re-issued at frequent intervals. The fifth edition, for instance, published about 1865, was the first botanical book possessed by the present editor. In 1892 an appendix of 96 pages, entitled Grasses,” but also comprising the sedges, was compiled by the author’s son, C. Henry Johns, M.A., from Bentham and Hooker’s ‘‘ Handbook of the British Flora.” In 1899 I entirely recast the book, largely rewriting it, and, in endeavouring to bring it up to the level of present-day British botany, inevitably enlarging it, so that the twenty-ninth re-issue, of February 1900, which I was graciously permitted to dedicate to H.R.H. Princess Alice Mary of Albany, now Princess Alexander of Teck, ran to 926 pp. of text, in addition to 52 pages of intro- duction. This edition having been twice re-issued, had, in 1910, 64 coloured plates by Miss Grace Layton added to it when pub- lished as the thirty-second edition. It has now once more been fully and carefully revised so as to bring its nomenclature into accordance with the rules of the Vienna Congress, as endorsed by that’ held at Brussels in 1910, and to incorporate newly-discovered species.

I have to acknowledge the loan of the accompanying portrait, and much valuable information for this brief memoir, from Mr. F. Hamilton Davey, the author of the Flora of Cornwell.”

G. S. BOULGER.

Fist OF COLOURED PEATEs

No. of Plate Facing page

' (1) Traveller’s Joy (Clematis Vitalba) (2) Columbine (Aguzlegia vulgaris) . ; (3 Yellow Water-Lily (Vymphea lutea) . (4) Red Poppy (Papaver Rh@aas) . ; (5) Celandine (Chelidonium majus) . : (6) Purple Sea Rocket (Cakzle maritima) . (7) Soapwort (Safonaria officinalis) . p (8) { SS aei EN ae Ne } adder Campion (Szlene latifolia (9) White or Evening Campion (Lychnis alba) . ; : (10) St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) mall upright St. John’s Wort (A/ypericum pulchrum ( Aa ne ee St is ne : II allow (Malva sylvestris (12) Shining Crane’s Bill (Geranzum lucidum) Jagged. leaved Crane’s Bill (G. dissectunt) (13) Dyers Greenweed, Woad-Waxen (Genista tinctoria) . (1 f White or Dutch clover (Trifolium repens) 4) (Red Clover (Z7rifolium pratense) (15) Kidney Vetch, or Lady’s Fingers pace ei culneraria) (16) Meadowsweet (Sfz7@a Ulmaria) . 17) Dewberry (Rubus cesius) : y (18) Sweet Briar (Rosa eglanteria) Burnet Rose (Rosa involuta) (19) Dog Rose (Rosa cantina) . (20) Wail Pennywort (Cotyledon Umbilicus- Veneris) . (21) Rose-bay, or French Willow (Z£f2lobium angustifolium) (22) Evening Primrose (Znothera biennis) 23) Bryony (4ryonia dioica) 3 yony (27y (24) Common Fennel (Fexiculum vulgare) (25) Wild Cornel (Cornus sanguinea) . (26 Woodbine, or Honeysuckle (Lonicera Periclymenum)) ) Pale Honeysuckle (Lonicera Caprifolium) (27) Spur-Valerian (Kentranthus ruber) (28) Wild Teazle (Dzpsacus sylvestris)

(29) Field Scabious (Kuautia arvensis) : Frontispiece

(30) Corn-Marigold (Chrysanthemum Pee (31) Colts’-foot (7 usstlago Farfara)

xili

X1V LIST OF COLOURED PLATES

No. of Plate Facing page (32) Ragwort (Senecto Jacobea) . F : : ; ; ATS (33) Musk Thistle (Carduus nutans) : : , 2 76 (34) Dwarf Plume-thistle (Carduus acaults) 34) Marsh Plume thistle (Carduus palustris) : ; eer? (35) f Cornflower (Centaurea Cyanis) 28 5)\ Brown Radiant Knapweed (C. /acea) =e (36) Chicory (C¢chorium Intybus) ; . : be 283 Hairy Hawkbit (7’rcncia nudicaulis) (37) Smooth Hawkbit (Leontodon autumnalts) | ° ; ; AP (38) Goat’s-beard (7ragopogon pratensis) . ' : ; - OG (39) Sheep’s-bit (/Jastone montana). -. 207 (40) Harebell (Campanula rotundifolia) . : : .= SOR (41) Scarlet Pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis) f « 322 (42) Greater Periwinkle (Vizca major) : ; ; ega7 (43) Buck or Bog Bean (Menyanthes trifoliata) . : } aS (44) Evergreen Alkanet (Anchusa sempervirens) : s < 330 (45) Forget-me not (Myosotis scorpioides) . :; ; <i ome (46) Viper’s Bugloss (Echium vulgare) ; » Saat (47) Dwale, or Deadly Nightshade (Atropa Belladonna) ; i St (48) Great Mallein (Verbascum Thapsus) . ; 256 (49) Lesser Snapdragon (Antirrhinum Orontium) é : Paes (50) Purple Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) . : : : = BOE (51) Vervain (Verbena officinalis) : : ee Vi: (52) Amphibious Persicaria (Polygonum amphibium). : {ADO (53) Sorrel (Rumex Acetosa) : : ' ; : 422 (54) Tway-blade (Listera ovata) . : : ; 5: O03 (55) Bee Orchis (Ophrys apifera) : é : cg (56) Butterfly Orchis (Habenaria btfolia) . : i 7B (57) Yellow Iris, or Flag (/77s pseudacorus) : : MAGA (58) Saffron Crocus (Crocus officinalts) : } : 3 Avo (59) Common Daffodil, or Lent Lily (Varcissus Pseudo-narctssus) 480 (60) Solomon’s Seal (Polygonum multiforum) . : ; . 486 (61) Meadow Saffron (Colchicum autumnale) . ~ 405 (62) Cuckoo-pint (Lords and Ladies) (Av maculatum) . oS Een (63) Great Water Plantain (Alisma Planiago- de ; | | 520

(64) Flowering Rush (Butomus umbellatus) : : tf ue

= ah

INTRODUCTION

PAKS 4 EXPLANATION OF TERMS

THE object of this volume is to introduce the lover of Nature to an acquaintance with the common british flowering plants, to teach the unscientific how to find out the names of the flowers met with in the course of country rambles. Such a knowledge of plants, it may be said, and said with truth, is not Botany; but it is a step towards Botany; for there can be no coubt that scientific treatises on this subject would often be studied with more pleasure if the reader were familiar with the outward ap- pearance of the examples quoted; just as we take greater interest in accounts of astronomical discoveries if we have seen and handled a telescope than if we had merely had one described to us, no matter with what accuracy and minuteness. The reader, or, inasmuch as even the elementary knowledge of a science can only be attained by study, the s¢udent¢, who wishes to make this volume practically useful is recommended to read with care and attention the following pages, into which the author has introduced nothing but what is essential to the proper under- standing of the body of the work.

Before a novice can commence the study of any science, he must make himself acquainted with the terms employed by writers on that science, and he must not be frightened if things new to him should have strange names. Unmeaning and hard to be remembered they must appear to him at first, but this will be only as long as they remain mere sounds. When he has gained a knowledge of the ¢Azvgs for which they stand, they will lose their formidable appearance, and, hard as they may still be to pronounce, they will very soon become familiar to the mind, if not to the tongue. In a scientific treatise on Botany, taken in its widest sense, these terms must of necessity be very numerous; but not so, however, with a popular description of the plants growing wild in a single country of limited extent. The author

XV

Xvl INTRODUCTION

has, therefore, endeavoured to keep technical terms as much as possible out of sight, in the hope that the lover of Nature may be beguiled into forming an acquaintance with the outward appear- ance of the plants of his neighbourhood, and eventually be induced to study them more in detail. He has, consequently, avoided the use of Latin words wherever English ones would do as well, and has not dealt with the internal structure of plants, or with any organs but those with which itis necessary that the student should be familiar before he refers to the body of the work for a de- scription of any plant which he may have found.

The organs of a flowering plant may be described under the heads of Root, STEM, Lear, Hairs, INFLORESCENCE, BRACTS, FLOWER, RECEPTACLE, CALYX, COROLLA, STAMENS, CARPELS, Fruit, and SEED.

The Root may be the direct downward prolongation of the axis of the seedling plant, when it is called a ¢ap-root. It is thensome- . times enlarged and fleshy, as in the conical root of the Carrot and the Parsnip; or it may be much Jévanched, as in the Wallflower. Roots given off in no definite order, such as those which spring from the base of bulbs or from other stem structures, are termed adventitious. They are generally fibrous, as in Grasses; but may be swollen, as in the Dropwort, when they are termed xodu/ose. Such swollen roots, if clustered together, as in the Lesser Celan- dine (p. 13), are called fasciculate. In many Orchids two fibres or two groups of confluent fibres are enlarged into what are termed ¢udbercles, and the root is then called éuderculate.

The slender branches of roots are called rootlets ; but the actual absorption of liquid food from the soil is often performed by voot-hazrs, very delicate hairs, almost microscopic in size, which occur on the surface of young roots. Old roots of trees become corky like stems.

The Stem bears duds, which unfold either as elongating shoots, or as flowers. The points on the stem where the leaves are given off

Se eis t eh IS termed zodes. ‘They are sometimes swollen,

Orchiss |. aS in the Persicaria (p. 416) and most of the

Pink family. The space between two succes-

sive nodes is called an zz/ernode. In many herbaceous plants the

internodes are short, and the nodes consequently crowded and the

leaves in a tuft or rosette, as in the Daisy (p. 254) and the Primrose (p. 316).

The stem may be unbranched ; but is more commonly branched, each branch originating in a bud in the angle between a leaf and

INTRODUCTION XVli

the stem. This angle is called the axl of the leaf, from a Latin word meaning the arm-pit, and such a bud is, therefore, termed axzllary.

Many quick-growing stems, especially among Grasses and the Umbelliferous family (p. 191), have hollow or jis¢u/ar internodes.

Stems may be underground or aérial, the chief forms of under- ground stems being the tuber, the corm, the bulb, the rhizome, and the sucker.

The ¢uder is a fleshy rounded structure giving off few, if any,

Portion of a branch with leaf Z Scaly bulb of the Lily : a, shortened stem ; and bud 4. 6, fibrous roots ; c, scales; d, flowering stem.

roots, and bearing scattered buds, being made up of several inter- nodes, as in the Potato and the Black Bryony. The corm is a short, thick, solid stem, generally of one inter-

node, giving off roots below, and bearing buds on its upper sur- face, as in the Snowdrop, Crocus, Lords-and-Ladies, &c.

Portion of rhizome, ~, of the Solomon’s seal ; 41, terminal bud ; 4, a branch: | S$, S, scars produced by the decay of old branches.

The dvd is a short stem made up of many unelongated inter- nodes and enclosed in numerous fleshy leaf-scales. When these are narrow and overlap like tiles, as in Lilies, the bulb is called scaly ; when they are sheathing and concentric, as in the Onion, tunicate.

The rhizome, or rootstock, is an elongated stem bearing scale-

b2

XVill INTRODUCTION leaves and adventitious roots at its nodes. It generally grows

horizontally and is fleshy, as in Solomon’s-seal and Iris; but it may be slender, as in Couch-grass and Sand-sedge. When the

Ni | Ta D> \i ay ye Sr,

bis

Common Ivy: 4, @, aérial roots. Toothwort with scaly leaves and bracts (6),

older portion dies away it has an abrupt or fvemorse (bitten off) end, as in the Devil’s-bit Scabious (p 245) and the Primrose.

The sucker is a branch, or secondary stem, given off under- ground and rising to the surface, as in the Common Elm, Mints, and Roses,

INTRODUCTION X1X

Stems may be woody or herbaceous, the former being chiefly characteristic of perennial plants. A woody plant with one main stem at least ten or twelve feet high is called a ¢vee; whilst if it branches freely near the ground it is a srwd, or if less than three feet high, an wxdershrub.

A large number of plants, known as herbaceous perennials, have perennial undergound stems, but send up branches above ground that are annual, dying down each winter.

Aérial stems may be erect, prostrate, or ascending, horizontal, that is, at first, but bending upwards at their points. They may be fezzing, as in the Hop, Honeysuckle, and Convolvulus ; or may climb in other ways, such as the roots in the Ivy, the prickles in Roses, the tendrils in Tares, and the twisted leaf-stalks in Clem- atis. They may be sfcmescent, ending in straight spines, as in the Blackthorn, or they may exceptionally be flattened and /eaf/ife, as in Butcher’s-broom (p. 485).

The runner is a prostrate axillary branch, rooting at its nodes and bearing buds which develop into new plants, as in the Straw- berry. The offse¢ is similar but shorter, and bears only a terminal bud, as in the House-leek (p. 176).

The Lear is most important as a means of distinguishing closely allied plants. Underground stems and the aérial stems of a few plants, such as the parasitic Toothwort, have small sca/y or mem- branous leaves ; but a typical leaf has a blade, a stalk, and a sheath, or two appendages at its base known as stipules. Leaves which have no stalks are termed sessz/e (sitting), as in Eryngo (p. 199).

The stipules may be united round the stem, as in the Knot- grass family, in which, and in the Rose, they occur exceptionally in addition to a sheath.

Other characters of the leaves are their vernation (from the Latin ver, spring), or folding in the bud, their position and arrangement, veining, form, base, apex, Margin, surface, texture, colour, and duration. In vernation leaves may be condupiicate,.or folded down the midrib, Lear of Rose with stipules : like the two halves of a sheet of note- 5, apex of the sheath. paper, as in the cherry; p/azéed, like a fan, as in the Beech; convolute, or rolled up like a scroll, as in the Plum ; zzvolute, with the margins rolled upwards, as in the Water-lily ; revolute, with them vclled backward, as in the Dock ; va/vaie, when they touch one another without overlapping ; or z#dricate, where they overlap hike roofing-tiles.

XX INTRODUCTION

In position they are either vadica/, springing directly from an underground stem, as in the Primrose ; or cau/ine, produced higher up, on an aérial stem. Both may occur on the same plant, as in Tower Mustard (p. 39).

In arrangement leaves may spring singly or scattered from the stem, as in Balsam (p. 105) ; opposite, in pairs, as in the Pink (p. 69); or whored, with more than two from one node, as in Herb-Paris (p. 497).

The veins of leaves may be farali/, as in grasses ; or curved, as in the Lily-of-the-Valley, with much finer cross-veins ; or irregu- larly me¢-veined, as in the Primrose, of very varying degrees of fine- ness. They may be fa/mate, radiating from the base of the leaf, as in the Sycamore ; or fvzmaze, with cross-veins springing from a midrib, like the barbs of a feather, as in the Beech.

The forms of leaves are very variable, and even on one plant leaves may occur which can only be satisfactorily described by uniting two of the following terms.

They may be xeedle-shaped, as in the Pine ; émear, with parallel sides and more than four times as long as they are broad, as in the Grasses ; od/ong, with parallel sides but not more than four times as long as broad, as in some Pondweeds ; ova/, with rounded sides, widest across the middle and more than twice as long as broad, as in the Butterwort; e//ptica/, less than twice as long as they are broad, as in the Apple ; vownd, as in the Water-lilies and Pennyworts ; azceolate, widest near the base and at least four times as long as they are broad ; ovaze, or egg-shaped, widest near the base but little more than twice as long as broad, as in the Pear; hidney-shaped, broader than they are long, as in the Ground-Ivy ; 0b-danceolate, or reversedly lance-shaped, as in the Ribwort Plantain (p. 403) ; obovate, or reversedly egg-shaped, as in the Cowslip ; de//oid, or nearly an equal-sided triangle, as in the Orache ; avrvow- shaped, as in the Arrow-head (p. 511) ; Aadbera- shaped, with the barbs, or auricles, as they are called, pointing out- wards, as in Sheep’s Sorrel ; or rhomboid, as in the Birch.

The base of the blade of the leaf may be wedge-shaped ; taper- ing downwards, as in the Daisy (p. 254) ; Zeart-shaped, as in the Violet ; oblique, or larger on one side than on the other, as in the Lime-tree (p. 97) ; decurrent, when it runs down the sides of the stem as a wing, as in Thistles ; ; perfoliate (from the Latin Zer, through, and fo/zum, a leaf), when the auricles are so united round the stem that the stem appears to be growing through the leaf as in Hare’s-ear (p. 202); or peléate (from the Latin Zelfa, a shield), when they are so united in a stalked leaf that the stalk is attached to the leaf near its centre, as in the Pennyworts (pp. 174,

INTRODUCTION Xx1

198). When two opposite leaves are united by their bases they are called connate (from con, together, and zatus, born), as in the Yellow-wort (p. 329).

Vhe pomnt or apex of a leaf may be vounded, as in the Oak ;

=

LA If NS

Leaf of Ground Ivy. Leaf of Sheep’s Sorrel.

pointed ; bristly , notched ; or reversedly heart-shaped, as in the leaflets of Wood-Sorrel.

The margin of the leaf is either entire, or free from indenta- tions, as in the Lily-of-the-Valley ; /7zzged with hairs, as in young Beech leaves; wavy, as in the Oak ; crenaze, or scalloped, as in the Violet; toothed; or lobed. If the teeth point outward it is termed dentate, the Holly leaf being spznously dentate ; if upward, as in the Elm, the leaf is servate or saw-edged.

When a leaf is lobed or divided, its lobes or leaflets are arranged according to its venation, gener- ally palmately or pinnately. The division may extend to various depths from the margin towards the base or midrib, the leaf being termed simp/e, if it does not extend all the way, and compound, if it divides the leaf into distinct leaflets. A palmate leaf of three leaflets is called ‘¢ervmate, as in Trefoils; one of five, guinmate, as in Cinquefoil (p. 148). In pinnate leaves it is important to notice whether there is a terminal (odd) leaflet or not; how many pairs of leaflets there are ; and if these are again divided up (d¢-pinnaie). If there is a

Obli te leaf of th terminal lobe or leaflet larger than the rest, ee eae

as in the White Mustard, the leaf is called

dyrate. In describing a compound leaf it is generally only necessary to mention the type on which the leaflets are arranged, whether palmate or pinnate, and to describe one leaflet as if it were a simple leaf. Ifa leaf be divided up into such fine segments that

Xxil INTRODUCTION

their arrangement cannot well be determined, as in the submerged leaves of the Water Crowfoots, it is called decompoun..

The same terms are used in describing the surfaces of leaves as for those of herbaceous stems. ‘They may be g/aérous, or free from hairs; polished, as in many Evergreens and Monocoty- ledons ; g/aucous, with a blue-grey waxy bloom, as in the Sea-kale ; downy, asin Sage ; hairy ; prick’y, asin thé Teazle ; or glandular, dotted over with oil-glands, as in St. John’s-wort,

In texture leaves may be /eathery, as Holly, or fleshy, as in House-leek ; and in duration they are either deciduous, dying and falling in autumn or earlier, or evergreen, lasting until a new crop has formed, as in the Ivy, the Pine, and the Yew.

Lyrate leaf of the White Head of Scabious. Mustard.

The Hairs on stems or leaves require careful notice, as to whether they are few or many, long or short, stiff or weak, spread- ing (erect on the surface from which they spring) or adpressed (lying flat). The Nettles are the only British plants with stinging hairs.

The INFLORESCENCE Is a branch known as the peduncle (literally “little foot,” and therefore sometimes called foot-stalk), which gener- ally bears modified leaves known as éracts, from the axils of which spring secondary branches, which may branch again or bear a flower, the stalk immediately below a flower being termed a Jedzcel or flower-stalk. A peduncle springing directly from an under- ground stem and not bearing foliage-leaves, forms the inflorescence known as a scape, which may be one-flowered, as in the Tulip, or many-flowered, as in the Hyacinth, Cowslip, or Primrose. The difference between the two last-named examples is that the Cowslip

INTRODUCTION XX111

has a long peduncle and short pedicels; whilst the Primrose has a very short peduncle buried among its leaves, and long pedicels.

Among other chief varieties of the inflorescence are the following :—The sfze, an elungated axis with sessile flowers as in the Plantains (p. 402). The sfadzx, a spike with a fleshy axis or peduncle, as in Lords-and-ladies (p. 507). The catkin, generally described as a deciduous spike, as in the Hazel and the Willows (p. 452). The vaceme, an elongated axis with stalked flowers, as in Mignonette (p. 60). A corymb, which only differs from a raceme in the lower pedicels being longer, so as to bring all the ‘flowers nearly to a level, as in the Wallflower. <A ead, in which many small sessile flowers, or /forets, as they are called, are crowded together on the expanded apex of the peduncle, which is then termed the common receptacle. This occurs in the Scabious (p. xxi1) and in all the great order Composite, the Daisies, Dande- lions, Thistles, &c., which Linnzeus called ‘compound flowers.” An umbel, in which many flowers-stalks radiate from a common centre, as in the Ivy (p. 225).

If an inflorescence is branched more than once it is termed compound. ‘Thus an ear of Wheat is a compound spike or spike of spikelets, and the Carrot, Parsnip, Hemlocks, and most other members of the Order Umbellifere, have compound umbels.

When the terminal or central flower in a cluster opens first the inflorescence is called a cyme. Among the various forms of cyme are the fascic/e, a crowded cluster of nearly sessile flowers, as in the Pinks (p. 71), and the vertictl/aster or false whorl, where two such clusters occur in the axils of opposite leaves, asin the Dead nettles and other members of the order Zadiate (pp. 379—401).

BracTs are small leaves which are generally to be found below the flower. The inflorescence of the Crucifere is remarkable for being without any, or ebvacteate. Sometimes they are mere mem- branous scales, as in the Cranesbills ; or they may be leaf-like, as in the Anemones ; or fefaloid, resembling the petals in colour and texture, as in the Wild Hyacinth. When in-one or more whorls below the inflorescence they are called the zzvolucre (from the Latin zzvolucrum, an envelope). In the Dandelion the in- volucre consists of two whorls of green bracts, those of the outer whorl reflexed (p. 291). In the Knapweeds the numerous bracts of the involucre are membranous, dark brown, and arranged imbricately, ze. overlapping like roof-tiles. All Comfosi/e and most Umbellifere have involucres. An involucre persisting in the fruit stage, like the leafy husk of a Hazel-nut or the “cup” of an Acorn, is termed a cupule. This structure gives its name to the Order Cupulifere.

XX1V INTRODUCTION

The FLoweEr is a branch bearing leaves modified so as to assist in the production of seed, and generally crowded together on the expanded anex of the pedicel, or flower-stalk, which is termed the receptacle or thalamus. As much of the classification of plants is based upon the characters of the flower, a knowledge of its structure is indispensable to the student. A typical flower has four kinds of floral leaves, sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. The sepals collectively form the ca/yx (Greek for a cup), and the petals constitute the corolla (“little crown”). The calyx and corolla together are called the pevianth (Greek feri-, round, anthos, a flower), or floral envelopes whilst the stamens and carpels are called the essential organs, because seed cannot be formed if they are absent. If both calyxand corolla are present in the same flower, as in the Buttercup, in which flower the five

Section of a flower. Asymmetric flower of Valerian.

sepals are green and the petals golden, the flower is termed complete ; but if one of these envelopes is absent, as in the Marsh- marigold, the flower is zzcomplete. Incomplete flowers are mono- chlamydeous (Greek monos, one, chlamys, a cloak) if, as in this case, they have one envelope ; ach/amydeous if, as in the Ash, they have neither calyx nor corolla. If both stamens and carpels occur in the same flower it is termed Zerfect; if only one class of essential organs is present the flower is zperfect, and staminate or carpellale as the case may be. Plants with imperfect flowers may either be onecious (Greek monos, one, oikos, a house), where, as in the Hazel, the staminate and carpellate flowers are on the same plant; or diecious, where, as in Willows and Poplars, they are on different individuals. Where neither stamens nor carpels are present, as in the outer florets of the blue Cornflower, or the outer flowers in the cluster of the Guelder Rose, the flower is zez7zer.

INTRODUCTION XXV

As a rule, the leaves of each whorl are alternate with those of the preceding whorl, the petals being opposite the spaces between the sepals and the outer row of stamens opposite the spaces between the petals. ‘The Primrose and its allies form a marked exception to this rule in that its stamens are opposite to, or stand in front of, its petals. |

Where the floral leaves in each whorl are similar in size and shape the flower can be divided symmetrically in several direc- tions, as in the Buttercup; and it is then called polysymmetric. Where from differences in the form of the leaves it can only be so divided in one direction, as in the Pea, the flower is sonosymmetric. Occasionally it is asymmetric, or not symmetrically divisible by any plane, as in Valerian.

The RECEPTACLE is a very important structure in the classifica- tion of flowering plants, as upon it what is called the zmsertzon of the floral leaves depends. ‘Thus if sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels spring one beneath the other from a more or less conical

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WEDD 2 \ WY ay Ly) pa SS Sa ey A

Flower of Cow-pars- Flower of Bramble, Flower of Buttercup nip, showing epi- showing perigynous in section, showing gynous insertion. insertion. hypigynous insertion.

receptacle, as in the Buttercup, the calyx is zzfertor, the corolla and stamens are hypfugynous (Greek hugo, under, guné, a woman), the carpels are swerior, and the flower as a whole is called ¢halamz- floral. Tf, as in the Bramble or the Strawberry, the calyx, corolla, and stamens are carried out from under the carpels by a horizontal disk-like extension of the receptacle, the calyx is still inferior and the carpels superior, but the petals and stamens are termed perigynous. So, too, if, as in the Plum or the Rose, the sepals, petals, and stamens are carried up on a tube-like expansion of the receptacle which does not adhere to the sides of the carpels. If, as in the Apple, the Pear, and the Hawthorn, this receptacular tube does adhere to the sides of the carpels, the calyx becomes superior and the ovary formed by the carpels zz/erzor, the petals and stamens being still perigynous. If, lastly, as in Composite and Umbellifere, this adherent tube carries the sepals, petals, and stamens on to the top of the ovary, the calyx is superior, the ovary inferior, and the petals and stamens efzgyzous (Greek ef7, upon). When the petals and stamens are perigynous or epigynous the

XXV1 INTRODUCTION

flower is sometimes called calycifloral, as if these parts sprang from the calyx.

The Catyx (from the Greek a/ux,a cup) is usually green and leaf-like, though it may be fe¢a/ord, as in the Marsh-marigold. Its sepals may be free (fo/vsepalous) or united (gamosepalous), like a cup. In all hypogynous flowers it will be, as we have seen, 7- ferior, and in all epigynous ones, szfertor. In direction the sepals may be erect, asin the Cabbages ; ascending, as in Mustard ; spread- ing, as in Strawberry ; or veflexed, as in the bulbous Buttercup. At their base they may be fouched, as in the two outer ones of most Crucifere ; or they may be spurred, as in one of those of the Larkspur. Even when made up of five united sepals, the calyx is often d:-/adiate or two-lipped, as in the Broom and the Sage. It may be zubular, as in Centaury; tubular and /Aéaited, as in Prim- rose, folded so as to be star-shaped if cut across ; del/-shaped, as in Henbane ; barrel shaped, or zzceolate, and inflated, or separated by some considerable space from the corolla within it, as in the Bladder-campion ; or cy4ndric, as in the Carnation. In some Composite and other flowers the calyx is replaced by a circle of hairs called a pappus, which often enlarges in the fruit stage, as in Thistle-down. In duration the calyx may be caducouws, falling off as the flower opens, as in Poppies ; decduous, falling with the petals and stamens when the seed is set, as in the Cherry ; or ferszstent, remaining in the fruit stage, as in the Strawberry. When persistent it is generally #arcescent or withered, as in the Hawthorn, Apple, Medlar, and Gooseberry.

The Coro.ta (“little crown’) is the ring of more delicate, or petaloid, leaves within the calyx, which are usually coloured—that is, not green—and often fragrant. They are also usually attached by a narrower base than the sepals, this being sometimes drawn out into a long narrow portion or daw, as in the Pinks, when the broader upper part is dis- tinguished as the “md. If coherent the petals are gamopetalous and the united part forms the corolla-tube, the junction of the tube with the free limb being known as the ¢hvoat. In the Borage tribe the throat of the corolla is generally

Clawwed petal of a furnished with little scales or swellings. If not

3 coherent the petals are po/ypetalous, and this is a discriminating character of great importance in the classification of Dicotyledons, as also is their insertion, whether Aypogynous, perigynous or epigynous, and, to a less extent, their symmetry. Of polypetalous types the most important are the cruciform, consisting

INTRODUCTION XXVil

or four petals placed crosswise, as in the Crucifere (vide infra), and the papilionaceous (Latin papiiio, a butterfly) characteristic of the Pea and Bean tribe, in which there are five petals, the posterior one—that nearest the stem—called the standard and usually the largest, the two side ones termed wzzgs, and the two lower or anterior ones, often slightly united, known as the 4ee/ (p. 113).

Among gamopetalous corollas the chief polysymmetric forms