•* Ji; f. .f :. ?

=^. * ^ '? JT V

?. i^

i- *

M k

v. -w-

fe i

Jf. I

'* ?

f II





Museum of Comparative Zoology




DEC2 91958



University of Kansas Science Bulletin - Vol. XXXIX

November 18, 1958

Lawrence, Kansas


The University of Kansas Science Bulletin (continuation of the Kansas University Quarterly) is issued in parts at irregular inter- vals. Each volume contains from 500 to 1,800 pages of reading matter, with necessary illustrations. Exchanges with other institu- tions and learned societies everywhere are solicited. All exchanges should be addressed to

The University of Kansas Science Bulletin, Library of the Untverstty of Kansas,

Lawtience, Kan,


The actual date of pubHcation ( i. e., maiHng date ) of many of the volumes of the University of Kansas Science Bulletin differs so markedly from the dates borne on the covers of the publication or on the covers of the separata that it seems wise to offer a corrected hst showing the mailing date. The editor has been unable to verify mailing dates earher than 1932. Separata were issued at the same time as the whole volume.


XX— October 1, 1932. XXI— November 27, 1934. XXII— November 15, 1935. XXIII— August 15, 1936. XXIV— February 16, 1938. XXV— July 10, 1939. XXVI— November 27, 1940. XXVII, Ft. I— Dec. 30, 1941. XXVIII, Pt. I— May 15, 1942. Pt. II— Nov. 12, 1942. XXIX, Pt. I— July 15, 1943. Pt. II— Oct. 15, 1943. XXX, Pt. I— June 12, 1944. Pt. II— June 15, 1945.

Vol. XXXI, Pt. I— May 1, 1946. Pt. II— Nov. 1, 1947. XXXII— Nov. 25, 1948.

XXXIII, Pt. I— April 20, 1949. Pt. II— March 20, 1950.

XXXIV, Pt. I— Oct. 1, 1951. Pt. II— Feb. 15, 1952.

XXXV, Pt. I— July 1, 1952. Pt. II— Sept. 10, 1953. Pt. Ill— Nov. 20, 1953. XXXVI, Pt. I— June 1, 1954. Pt. II— July 15, 1954. XXXVII, Pt. I— October 15, 1955.

Pt. II— June 29, 1956. XXXVIII, Pt. I— Dec. 20, 1956 Pt. II— March 2, 1958

Editor Edward H. Taylor

Editor for Vol XXXIX George W. Byers

Editorial Board Edvi^ard H. Taylor, Chairman

Charles Michener

Paul Roofe

E. L. Treece

WoRTHiE H. Horr

Parb:e H. Woodard, Secretary



(TO. f!?V5 7(1 DEC 2 9 195;






Volume , XXXLX

University of Kansas Publications

Lawrence, November 18, 1958




I 95B


»'^^\ ^~,,^L

Contents of Volume XXXIX


1. Additions to the Known Herpetological Fauna of Costa

Rica with Comments on Other Species. No. III.

Edward H. Taylor, 3

2. Notes on Costa Rican Centrolenidae with Descriptions of

New Forms Edward H. Taylor, 41

3. Observations on the Ethology of Neotropical Anthoph-

orine Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea).

Charles D. Michener and Rudolf B. Lange, 69

4. The Flora and Ecology of the Chautauqua Hills in Kan-

sas Earl W. Lathrop, 07

5. A Subgeneric Revision of the Genus Osniia in the West-

ern Hemisphere (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

Rancndra N. Sitiha, 211

6. Notes on Oviposition and the Hatching ot Eggs of Aedes

and PsoropJiora Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

A. Ralph Barr and Ahdulla Al-Azawi, 263

7. A Revision of the Genus Osmia, Subgenus Centrosmia

( Hymenoptera: Megachilidae ) .

Ranendra N. Sinha and Charles D. Michener, 21 b

8. The Comparative Morphology, Phylogeny and Higher

Classification of the Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papil- ionoidea) Paul R. Ehrlich, 305

9. The T enagogonus-Limnometra Complex of the Gerridae.

H. B. Hungerford and Ryuichi Matsuda, 371

10. An Anatomical Study of a Neotropical Tree Frog, Cen-

trolene prosoblepon (Salientia: Centrolenidae).

Theodore H. Eaton, Jr., 459

11. Observations on the Behavior of Brasilian Halictid Bees,

HI Charles D. Michener and Rudolf B. Lange, 473

12. Catalogue of the Types in the Snow Entomological Mu-

seum. Part II (Mallophaga) K. C. Emerson, 507

13. Mitotic Activity in Allium After Treatment with Chromo-

some-Breaking Chemicals.

R. L. Hancock and M. Hancock, 519

D£C2 9i9^




Vol. XXXIX] Lawrence, November IS, 1958 [No. 1

Additions to the Known Herpetological Fauna of Costa Rica with Comments on Other Species. No. III.


Edward H. Taylor

Abstract: This paper treats f)f a series of Costa Rican Salientia. Two species, Hyla microcephahi mirrncephala Cope and Eleutherodoctyhts monni- chortim Dunn, are reported from Costa Riea for the first time. Tlie following species are descrihed as new: Dendrohates granuliferus, Eleutheroducttjlus taurus, Uijla legleri and Hyla dulcensis. The species Hijhi monticola Cope, long known only from the type specimen (now lost), is redescribed. Sixteen forms are illustrated with photographs.


The collections made in Costa Rica after the completion of my work on "The Frogs and Toads of Costa Rica," * inclnde a large number of Amphibia. Certain of these have been studied and the results published in two supplemental works.** Others remain imstudied.

In this, a third supplement, the following species are treated:

Bufo holdridgci Taylor

Bufo leutkenii Boulenger

Bufo nichinochlori.s Cope

Dcudrolnites atiratus Girard

Dcndrohutes typographus iyeferstein

Detulrohates grantdiferus sp. nov.

Eh'utlierodactyhts monnichorum Dunn

Eh'uthcrodactyltts taunts sp. now

//(//« zctcki Gaige

Hyla houlengeri Cope

Hyla microcephala microcephala Cope

* The Frogs and Toads of Costa Rica, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., vol. 35, pt. 1, no. 5, July 1, 1952. pp. 577-942, figs. 1-69.

** Additions to the Known Herpetological Fauna of Costa Rica with Comments on Other Species. No. I. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., vol. 36, pt. 1, no. 9, June 1. 1954. pp. 597-639, figs. 1-12; and

Additions to the Known Herpetological Fauna of Costa Rica with Comments on Other Species. No. II. ibid. vol. 37, pt. 1, no. 13. October 15. 1955. pp. 499-575. figs. 1-18.


The University Science Bulletin

Hyla incadoi Dunn Htjla monticolu Cope Hyla ^(ih})i Copt' Hylu ah'urodtn Taylor Hyla p.scudopunia Cimtlu'i Hyla legleri sp. iion . Hyla dtilcensis sp. ik)\ . Hyla clcachroa Cope


Biijo hol(lri(l<ici Taylor

(Fig. 1)

Kufo holdrid^ei Taylor, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., vol. 35, pt. 1, no. 5, 1952, pp. 607-609, fig. 3, (type locality, approx. 7500 ft.. \'okan Barha Western Slope, [leredia Province, C^ R. )

The type locality was revisited in 1952 by John Baker and me, but we encountered, unexpectedly, such very cold and wet weather

¥iG. 1. bufo holdndgei Taylor. KUM.NH No. .30885. Type. West- ern Slope Volcdn Barba, 7500 tt. elev., Heredia Province, C. R. Actual snout-vent length, 28 mm.

Herpetologic:al Fauna of Costa Rica 5

that we were practically incapacitated, and as a result, obtaine^tl no adequate collections there. The species was not rediscovered. A photograph of the type is given.

Bufo luctkenii Boulenger

(Fig. 2)

Bufo Itictkcnii Boidenger, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, vol. 8, 1891, pp. 4.55- 456 (type locality, Cartago, Costa Rica).

A specimen, KUMNH No. 32810, taken by me at the Maribella Hotel, at the base of the Puntarenas Peninsula. Puntarenas Province. Costa Rica, is a female and not full\- mature, but it seems to agree with the type description of Bufo Icutkcnii in essential points. Al-

FiG. 2. Bufo letitkeiiii Bonlenger. KUMNH No. 32810. Maribella Hotel, at base of the Puntarenas Peninsula, Puntarenas Province, C. R. Actual snout- vent length, 51 mm.

6 The University Science Bulletin

thougli a young specimen, tlie cranial crests are strongly developed. The supraorbital crests curve strongly, and the supratympanic and postorbital crests are high and sharply defined. The snout is com- pressed, truncate, with a distinct vertical ridge on tip. The parietal crests, if extended, would form a right angle.

The parotoid gland is slightly oval with a surface area not or slightly exceeding that of the tympanum. The diameter of the tympanum is slightly less than half the length of the eye-opening. The interorbital distance is slightly greater than the width of an eyelid. When the leg is laid forward the tibiotarsal articulation reaches the tympanum. A few scattered, somewhat larger tubercles are mixed with smaller tubercles on dorsum.

The subarticular tubercles on fingers are single, except the distal one on the fourth finger, which is double. The first finger is longer than the second. The palmar tubercle is large, somewhat oval, while the inner metacarpal tubercle is less than half as large in area.

The toes, unlike the type, are distinctly less than half webbed ( in adult type half webbed ) .

When the legs are folded the heels do not touch. Two meta- tarsal tubercles are present, both relatively small, the inner distinctly the larger. A row of tubercles replaces the tarsal fold.

The figure given here shows the dorsal marking. The median line is only moderately distinct, while the V-shaped mark is strongly defined, the other markings less so. The parotoids are faintly yellowish, as are the tubercles below the tympanum. The cranial crests are brown, the eyelids gray. The venter is cream without any pigmentation.

This species is probably most closely related to Biifo gemmifcr Taylor of southern Mexico.

Bufo melanochloris Cope (Figs. 3, 4)

Bufo inelunoMuris Cope, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, ser. 2, vol. 8, 1875, p. 100 (type locality "Eastern Costa Rica").

The following specimens are in the collection: KUMNH Nos. 28356, .3()28()-81, 32817-19, Turrialba, Cartago Province; Nos. 30275-79 Pacuare (between Moravia de Chirripo and Turrialba on the Pacuare River, Limon Province.

The largest specimen I have seen is No. 32819 J from Turrialba, measuring 58 millimeters from snout to vent.

The vocal slits are paired. The undersides of the hands, feet, tarsi, chin, throat, and breast are blackish or brownish black with

Herpetological Fauna of Costa Rica 7

some dark reticulation on the venter. Much of the underside of thigh is cream. A row of sharp tubercles, along the edges of the tarsus, is cream, in sharp contrast to the blackish color of the un- derside of the tarsus. The tarsal joint reaches the anterior edge of the eye. The parotoids are double the size of the tympanum.

Fig. 3. Bufo tnehmochloris Cope. KUMNH No. 32819. At bridge aeross Rio Re\entaz6n, Turrialba, Cartago Province, C R. Actual snout-vent length, 59 nun.

When the legs are folded the heels overlap one millimeter. The toes are approximately one-third webbed.

A specimen of a small toad. No. 32809 (45 millimeters in snout- vent length), taken at the Esquinas Forost Preserve (between Palmar and Golfito ) Puntarenas Province, while presenting many characters of mclanochlorls, differs in several significant points. It


The University Sc:ience Bulletin

is compared with my largest female melanochloris, measuring 42 millimeters from snout to vent.

The front part of the snout is rounded, not forming a noselike elevation with slightly depressed areas on each side; the canthi are rather sharp-edged, extending to the anterior level of the nostril, not flattened or thickened and terminating posterior to nostril; the supraocular ridge is continuous with the parietal ridge, not forming an angle where it is joined by the postocular ridge; the ridges are separated a smaller distance, and somewhat less elevated; the

Fig. 4. Bufo melanochloris Cope. KUMNH No. 32809, Es- (juinas Forest Preserve, between Palmar and Golfito on railway. Actual snout-vcnt length 46 mm.

Herpetological Fauna of Costa Rica 9

parotoids are very small, about half the size of those in melano- chloris. The distance between the parietal and the supratympanic ridges is greater, (5 mm.; 4 mm.) and the area between is less excavated. The choanae when seen from below are nearly two- thirds concealed by the overhanging palatal shelves (not completely visible as in melanochloris); the region back of the eye is less ele- vated (6.5 mm.: 7 mm.) and the tympanum is a half closer to the supratympanic ridge.

The color is brown rather than gray green and black. The nar- row interorbital band is present but otherwise the head is uniform light chocolate-brown except for a tiny cream spot below the eye. A discrete median gray-white line is present on the back behind occiput. Underside of limbs dark, the tubercles under hand and foot cream, in strong contrast. The back of the thigh is nearly uniform blackish-brown. The cross-bands on the limbs are smaller.

I suspect that the forms are related. Further material will dem- onstrate whether or not it represents a western subspecies of mel- anochloris. A figure of the specimen is given.

Dendrobates ouratus (Girard)

This species has a relatively wide distribution in Costa Rica, occurring on both coasts. In living specimens there were slight color differences, and some difference in the pattern of the marking between specimens from southwestern Puntarenas Province and those on the east coast. The terminal discs on the digits average a little smaller.

One small population in the region of La Lola, Limon Province has the digital pads larger than those from the eastern coastal areas.

Specimens in the collection are from the following localities: KUMNH, Nos. 36051-57, 36348-54, Suretka; Nos. 33058-72 Moun- tain Cow Creek, near Banano; Nos. 33090-9L Limon; Nos. 33073-81, 33104, La Lola. All the above are from Limon Province. KUMNH, Nos. 33092-33103, Palmar; Nos. 30382-30389 Esquinas Forest Re- serve on railway between Palmar and Golfito; both lots, Puntarenas Province.

Dendrobates typo'^rapJius Keferstein ( F^ig. 5, lower three)

This diminutive species is quite variable in color, especially as regards the extent of the areas occupied by red and blue. In Costa Rica it is presumably confined to the eastern lowlands. The fol- lowing numbers are in the KUMNH collection: Nos. 24884-901, 30451-58, a3048-56, Los Diamantes, near Guapiles; Nos. 33036-47,

10 The University Science Bulletin

La Lola; 33057 Mountain Cow Creek; Nos. 35935-89, 36051-103, 36355-60, 36544-50, Suretka, all from Limon Province. KUMNH Nos. 36523-43, Puerto Viejo, Heredia Province.

In the Suretka area, the outer sheath, that is shed from the leaves of a small palm, is curved so that it may accumulate rain water. This is used as a place for the deposition of eggs of this small species. More than 25 such "breeding ponds" were counted in a small area. The eggs were for the most part recently laid, although a few "ponds'" had recently hatched larvae. The date was July 3, 1954.

Dendrohates grannUfertis sp. nov. ( Fig. 5, upper three )

Type: KUMNH No. 43874; obtained on low mountains north of the Rio Diquis, about 3 miles north ot Palmar, Puntarenas Province Costa Rica, Sept. 3, 1952, by Edward U. Taylor.

Paruhipes: KUMNH Nos. 43875-43880 topotypes, collected by John Baker, Paid Allen, and Edward H. Taylor.

Diagnosis: A diminutive toothless toadlike species characterized by having the entire dorsal and lateral surface of body and upper surface of femur covered with relatively large pustular granules, those in the dorsolateral regions largest; venter and greater part of imdersurface of thigh with similar but somewhat flattened granules; discs on digits widened, their dorsal surface divided by an indefinite groove; hands and feet lacking trace of web. Body orange, some- times shading to brick-red; the hind limbs usually greenish blue.

Description of type: Head a little narrower than body, its greatest width (7.5 mm.) almost ecjual to its length (7.7 mm.); canthus rostralis absent or very broadly rounded; snout short, the tip broadly rounded; nostrils lateral, not visible, seen from above; loreal region nearly vertical, slightly excavated; distance of nostril from eye (2 mm.) less than distance from midpoint of upper lip; distance between nostrils (3.1 mm.) greater than interorbital distance (2.5 mm.); width of eyelid (2.2 mm.) less than interorbital distance; length of eye-opening (2.7 mm.) greater than length of snout but shorter than its distance from tip (3 mm.); lower part of tympanum visible (when exposed by removal of skin and muscle, it measures 1.6 mm. high, 1.25 mm. wide on paratype).

Palate excavated, the small choanae completely concealed by overhanging palatal shelves when seen directly from below; no vomerine or maxillary teeth; tongue elongate, free on sides, pos- teriorly widened and free for two thirds of its length; vocal sac

Herpetologk:al Fauna of Costa Rica


r^ r-


^ =

1— 1 c^


iH £


^ c



r< <

*— _^

•^. P


.£P S

^ i

u C

, ~

C '■"'

■w CI




C -'


^j W

^ r*v

vti >;



^ ^


'o rN


•*-» HH


U, 1/2

2 30

,o o

:~ CO

5j -^



5 QC

^ ^

~ -T

1^ ~

":s oi




i; c


•^ p


?= s

S c

5i ■" CC

QZ ^

£ E



•= 6^^



■C t r-rA



2 o J •?



3 ^ -tTS




4— '


- '•fi ^o





»- -T 1


^ S-'"^

C '— '





r^ c^ C

i, -^^ J

12 The University Science Bulletin

indicated externally by slight folds, the vocal slits large, their edges somewhat thickened.

Arm with wrist reaching end of snout; fingers completely free, with widened terminal discs, that of the third finger more than twice width of first, a fourth wider than second and fourth; first finger distinctly shorter than second; inner metacarpal tubercle small, smaller than the flattened subarticular tubercles but only about one fifth of the area of the large single palmar tubercle; a small distinct tubercle somewhat behind wrist on under surface of arm; discs normally without a terminal groove (if somewhat dehydrated a groove appears); upper surface of discs (except first) with two rounded elevations separated by a groove or depression.

Leg short, the tibiotarsal articulation reaching to latter fourth of eye; when legs are folded at right angles to body, the heels touch; toes completely without webs; toes with discs, that of fourth toe equally as large as discs on second and fourth fingers; the third extends two thirds of its length beyond fifth; first toe very short, inner metatarsal tubercle large, somewhat elongate; outer larger, rounded; an indistinct tubercle on distal part of tarsus and a slight short inner tarsal ridge ending abruptly in a rounded tubercle; upper surface of discs on third and fourth toes divided by a depression, absent in other toes;

Head with flattened tubercles on occiput and interorbital region, remainder glassy smooth; body and sides with irregular-sized pus- tular granules; arm entirely smooth; thigh with granules on upper surface; inner part of posterior surface of thigh and most of the posterior half of the ventral surface, the upper side of tibia and tarsus, with slight suggestion of granules; remainder of limb glassy smooth; venter strongly granular; breast minutely roughened; the throat and chin with indistinct longitudinal folds, slightly rough- ened and pitted; no supratympanic fold; upper part of eyelids smooth.

Color in life: Above generally orange, the limbs bluish to green- ish blue, the color fading completely in a few days, and in preserva- tive the specimens are nearly black, the arms and legs brownish to brownish black; under side of digital discs grayish.

Measurements in mm.: (Nos. 43874 j , 43876$, 43880 ^^ re- spectively.) Snout to vent, 23, 22, 22; width of head (at tympa- num ) 7.5, 7, 7; length of head ( to back of jaw angle ) ; 7.7, 7.6, 7.6; arm, 16.2, 15.2, 15.2; leg, 29, 27.1, 29; tibia, 9.5, 9.2, 9; foot and tarsus, 13.5, 13, 13.5.

Herpetological Fauna of Costa Rica 13

Variution: Females have grooxes with thickened edges where the vocal slits are present in the male. The dorsal color varies be- tween brick-red and orange, and often the limbs are nearly blue.

Retnarks: The specimens were taken from the side of a low mountain north of the Rio Diquis about 3 miles north of Palmar, Pimtarenas Province. They were moving about on the forest floor in the afternoon.

Aside from the granulation on dorsum and venter, the species differs from Dendrobates typographus in having usually larger metatarsal and metacarpal tubercles, the heels not overlapping (overlap at least 2 mm. in typographus) and the terminal pads on hands are usually larger. A few specimens of typographus may show a few tubercles on the extreme posterior part of venter. The tarsal tubercle is smaller and less conspicuous and the dorsum is usually glassy smooth. The dorsal groove is present on all digital discs except those of inner finger and toe.

The species name is derived from the Latin granulum, little grain, and ferre to carry.

Eleutheroclactylus monnichoruni Dunn

(Fig. 6)

Eleutherodactijlus monnichnrum Dunn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 92, Nov. 18, 1940, pp. 105-122, pi. 2 (type locaUty, Valley of the Velo, Finca Lerida on the slope of Volcan Chiriqui above Boquete).

A series of specimens taken by me at Agua Buena, near Canas Gordas, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica, July 22, 1954, are referred to this species. They are KUMNH Nos. 37480-37486, taken in forest at an elevation of perhaps less than 2000 ft.

They differ in certain characters from typical E. monnichorum and may represent a lowland subspecies. I give herewith a detailed description of one of the specimens, KUMNH No. 37483.

Diagnosis: A medium-sized species of the genus with narrow ( often broken ) dorsolateral folds or ridges running from near eye to groin; hand without web, the digits without lateral ridges or fringes; fingers with terminal pads, those of the two outer, double the width of pads on two inner digits; two subequal palmar tu- bercles; inner toes one-third to one-half webbed, the digits usually with a slight lateral fringe; sole without supernumerary tubercles; tibiotarsal articulation reaches several millimeters beyond snout; chin and venter smooth; a broad, nearly uniform light-brown stripe covers head and body between the black dorsolateral folds; canthus rostralis marked, slightly rounded; greatest diameter of tympanum


The University Science Bulletin

( $ ) about two thirds of the length of eye-opening; tynipaniim of male about three fourths of eye length; vomerine teeth in two groups, not reaching le\el of choanae; two \ocal slits, the vocal sac not or scarcely indicated externalK'.

Description of KVMNH No. S7483: Head distinctly wider than the body, the outline forming an oval; cantluis rostralis distinct, the edge slightly rounding; snout slighth' rounding in lateral profile.

Fig. 6. Eleutherodacttjhis monnichoruni Dunn. Upper figure, KUMNH No. 37483, snout-vent length 31 mm.; lower left. No. 37481, 27 mm., lower right. No. 37486, 26 nun. All from Agua Buena, near Cafias Gordas, Puntarenas Provinet; (near Panamanian border).

Herpetological Fauna of Costa Rica 15

the nostril distinctly closer to the median point on upper lip than to eye; loreal region shallowly concave, then sloping broadly to the lip; a slightly flattened area between nostrils. Head rather flattened but slightly deeper than snout; interorbital distance very slightly less than the greatest width of an eyelid; a pustule between orbits (usually black in color). Length of eye-opening distinctly less than distance between eye and nostril; tympanum vertically oval, its greatest diameter about two thirds of the length of the eye; a tiny lobule indicated on posterior edge of lower eyelid; a slightly curving, distinct supratympanic fold covers the upper edge of the tympanum and terminates above arm; a small glandular tubercle behind tympanum.

Tongue as broad as long, somewhat notched posteriorly, free behind for nearly one third of its length, and likewise free on the sides. (Vocal slits in males do not reach forward to the middle level of tongue.) Vomerine teeth on two somewhat triangular elevations beginning behind posterior level of the small choanae, and extending back as far as the level of the transverse palatal ridge.

Arm rather short, laid forward, the wrist reaches the tip of snout; first finger slightly shorter than second with a somewhat smaller terminal pad; the terminal pads of two outer fingers more than double the width of the pad on second; snbarticular tubercles prom- inent; inner metacarpal tubercle larger than palmar tubercles; outer palmar tubercle divided into two subequal parts; four super- ninnerary tubercles on palm; a row of indistinct tubercles under forearm.

Legs long, the tibiotarsal joint reaching beyond the tip of the snout about half the length of the tibia, when limb is laid forward; when legs are folded, the heels overlap about five millimeters; inner metatarsal tubercle flat, about three times the area of outer tubercle, toes with terminal pads, intermediate in size between those of sec- ond and third fingers, those of the three middle toes larger than those of the outer finger; three inner metatarsals largely separated by a web, the two outer metatarsals not so separated, resulting in a very short web between two outer toes; inner toes webbed for nearly half their length, the digits for the most part with narrow lateral fringes; subarticular tubercles equal to or a little smaller than those on fingers; no tubercles on sole.

Above, skin appearing smooth generally save' that under a lens a fine granulation is observable; the dorsolateral folds partly broken


The University Science Bulletin

into elongate warts of variable width; sides finely granular with some pustular tubercles, two of those above arm largest and black in color; chin and venter smooth; ventral part of thigh, and area about vent, granular; a slight abdominal fold outlines the "ventral disc."

Color: Above, the top of snout, interorbital region, occiput, and dorsum nearly uniform light brown to yellowish brown ( approach- ing fawn in some specimens); a black dot between orbits; eyelids darker brown; dorsolateral fold and area just below, black; a black spot behind eye covering the supratympanic fold, and a few small black spots on upper surface of arm; fingers with dark and light bands; forearm with a single dark band; thigh and tibia with three or four dark brown or blackish bands; toes not banded; blackish on underside of foot and tarsus; venter dull flesh-white with scat- tered pigment on chin and breast; loreal region blackish, with some cream spots; one or two black spots on outer part of front face of thigh; back of thigh brownish with lighter flecks; a black area sur- rounding vent with some light flecks evident.

Measurements in mm. of Eleutherodactylus monnichorum Dunn









Sex or age








Snout to vent








Head width








Head length








Axilla to groin








Snout to arm









21 67

21.5 29.2

17.5 55 19 25


49.3 17 21

15 48.2


17 48 17 21

16 48 16 21






Foot and tarsus. . . .


Variation: The dorsal coloration is similar in all. Two miUes have the sides almost uniformly dark while in another the color is rather light. The black interorbital spot is absent in one younger specimen.

Herpetological Fauna of Costa Rica 17

The males have the first finger strongly swollen at the base and vocal slits are evident in the floor of the mouth. They would appear to be adult or nearly so.

Remarks: My specimens differ from the description of the type of E. monnichorum as follows: distance of nostril to tip of snout one third of the distance from the eye (not one half); there is no ridge present across the interorbital region, a single elongate wart on the scapular region (not "two parallel elongate warts on each scapular region running in and back from corner of head the outer sometimes in contact with, or a part of the dorsolateral fold"); the terminal pads on outer fingers are distinctly smaller than the tympa- num in either males or females (not "as large as the tympanum in adult females"); eye length distinctly less than its distance from nostril ( not "eye equals its distance from nostril" ) .

Perhaps the most significant differences are the absence of the interorbital ridge, the eyelid wider than interorbital distance, and smaller digital pads. It is, of course, possible that my series does not represent fully grown specimens and the differences are those of age. Until this is determined the status of these specimens cannot be determined beyond question.

The type locality is no considerable distance south of Agua Buena, probably not more than 25 miles in a straight line.

Eleutherodactijlus taurus sp. nov.

(Fig. 7)

Type: KUMNH No. 43866, taken at Golfito, Puntarenas Province, Sept. 6, 1953 by Edward H. Taylor.

Paratypes: KUMNH Nos. 43868, 43872, collected Palmar, Puntarenas Province, Sept. 2, 1952, by Edward H. Taylor; Nos. 43867, 43869-43870, 43871, 43873, GolKto, Sept. 2-6, 1953, collected bv Edward H. Tavlor and John Baker.

Diagnosis: A large somewhat toadlike form of the rugulosa group, characterized by a diminutive tympanum, its greatest diameter two- and-a-half times in length of eye; fingers free; toes with lateral fringes and webs extending between separated metatarsals, the depth of the web equaling half of the length of the toes; slightly widened finger discs, those on toes larger, but still smaller than tympanum; tympanum separated from eye by a distance equal to its vertical diameter; a strong tarsal fold; inner and outer metatarsal tubercles present; vomerine teeth on two elevated bony ridges be- hind posterior level of choanae, the teeth on the posterior borders; tongue free behind for one fourth of its length and free on sides;


The University Science Bulletin

choanae about as large as openings to Eustachian tubes. Skin finely granular, rough; eyelids wider than the interorbital distance. Males with elongate vocal slits and vocal sac.

Description of type: Head oval in outline, the width ( 29.5 mm. ) greater than the length ( 26 mm. ) ; canthi rostrales distinct, if pro- jected would form an angle much in advance of nostril; loreal region slightly excavated, the upper part nearly vertical, then sloping broadly to lip; distance between eye and nostril (8 mm.) a little greater than distance of nostril to median point on upper lip (7

Fig. 7. Eletitherodactijlm taunts sp. nov. KUMNH No. 43867 9, Golfito, Puntarenas Province. Actual snout-vent length, 76 mm. The curious mark on the back is seemingly caused by a scar.

Herpetological Fauna of Costa Rica 19

mm.); tip of snout rounding, extending two millimeters beyond mouth; interorbital distance (5.5 mm.) less than width of an eyelid ( 7.5 mm. ) . A strong thick supratympanic fold overhangs tympa- num; running nearly straight back from eye, then forming an angle, turns downward to above arm; rim of tympanum incomplete above; tympanum small (4 mm. x 3 mm. ); length of eye-opening (9.1 mm.) a little greater than its distance from nostril; tympanum separated from eye by a distance of four millimeters.

Vomerine teeth along back edge of two closely approximated, elevated triangular ridges, which reach forward nearly to posterior level of choanae; palatal glands open in middle of palate about midway between anterior level of choanae and anterior end of palate; tongue about as long as wide, free on sides, free posteriorly for about one fourth of its length. ( Male with vocal sacs, the slits reaching forward to near back level of tongue. )

Fingers lacking trace of web but with distinct lateral ridges, the terminal pads of fingers a little wider than the digits, those of two outer fingers larger than the two inner; a strongly elevated inner metacarpal tubercle; palmar tubercle much larger, somewhat bifid; subarticular tubercles moderately large, and four small supernu- merary tubercles on palm (metacarpals); tibiotarsal articulation reaching nostril.

Leg moderate, the metatarsals, except outer, partly separated by a web, the web nearly half as long as digits measured to pads; terminal discs on three middle toes larger than any finger discs; an elongate elevated inner metatarsal tubercle about one half of length of first toe; a small outer tubercle; fringes on toes reaching from web U) disc, those of third and fourth toes folded down; no super- numerary tubercles on sole; a sharply defined tarsal fold extends three fourths of the length of tarsus; heels touch when limbs are folded at right angles.

Skin above with rather fine granular pustules, and a few somewhat larger pustules growing more numerous and prominent laterally; eyelid strongly pustular, as are dorsal parts of arms and legs; chin slightly wrinkled longitudinally; breast smooth; venter transversely wrinkled with some indistinct granulation; ventral disc scarcely defined; much of area under thighs completely smooth save in re- gion below and near vent, which is finely granular.

Color: Above, dark lavender-brown with a darker interorbital mark and some dim traces of other darker marks; lip with four in-


The University Science Bulletin

distinct cream blotches and one or two cream flecks below eye; indistinct spots or bands on thigh, tibia, and tarsus; upper parts of hand and foot with some darker marking; chin, breast, venter, lower part of sides, underarm, ventral part of thighs, and concealed part of tibia, cream-white. Undersurface of foot dark purplish-lavender; tubercles light lead color; most of underpart of hand similar; pos- terior part of thigh dark lavender-brown with whitish flecking or reticulation.

Measurements in mm. of Eleutherodactylus taurus sp.



43867 9 76

43866 9 72

43868 9 65

43869 9 62

43870 9 53

43872 9 43

43871 42




Snout to vent


Width of head









Length of head









Snout to arm









Axilla to groin


















Leg, from vent


















Foot and tarsus









Variation: No. 43S67 has the dorsal spots a little more distinct, and the banding on arms and legs is quite distinct. Some dark flecks appear on the edge of the lower jaw. Certain of the other paratypes have the limbs paler and the posterior part of the tibia and tarsus show whitish areas between the bands. To some extent this is true in the male specimen but in the smallest female the light areas are scarcely discernible.

The tympanum of the male is larger proportionally. It is sub- circular and the greatest diameter is a little more than half the length of the eye-opening; the outer metatarsal tubercle is propor- tionally more elevated.

The presence of the vocal sac separates this form from other large species of the same group except Eleutherodactylus fleischmanni.

Herpetological Fauna of Costa Rica 21

The tympanum is larger in that species (in male nearly as large as eye). The venter is smooth and there is less webbing between the toes; the dorsum is less rugose. There is considerable difference in the vertical range. E. fleiscJwianni is known from 4(K)0 to 6500 ft. elevation; E. taiirus is from sea level.

The name is derived from the Latin taiirus = bull.

Hyla zeteki Gaige

Hyla zeteki Gaige, Occ. Papers Mus. Zool. Uni\'. Michigan, no. 207, 1929, pp. 4-6 (type locality, Caldera Valley above Bouquete, Chiriqui Department, Panama ) .

Three more specimens of the diminutive Hijla zeteki were taken, as follows: KUMNH Nos. 36480-81, La Palma, San Jose Province; No. 36942, Vara Blanca, Heredia Province. The latter specimen is a female containing numerous, much-pigmented eggs. The two former are males. The base of the first finger is swollen nearly three times the width of the antepenultimate phalanx, but there are no spinous areas indicated. Both males are infected with the larvae of a dipterous insect, No. 36481 having three. They lie under the skin along the sides of the abdomen, and one under the thigh skin. The other male has two larvae. The largest larvae are two millimeters in length.

Hyla boulengeri (Cope)

(Fig. 8)

Scytapsis boulengeri Cope, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. No. 32, 1887, pp. 12-13 (type locality, Nicaragua).

A series of male specimens of Hyla boulengeri from Suretka, Limon Province, differs from a specimen from Turrialba ( 1900 ft. ) in having more pigment on the chin and throat and on the under- side of thighs, tibia, and feet. There are two prominent pointed tubercles on the area immediately above the vent. The inter- orbital tubercles are distinct; a row of small tubercles curving across the occiput and reaching eyelids are usually blackish, outlining a somewhat darker area. There is a row of tubercles (often broken) under the forearm. A pair of somewhat larger tubercles are present on the canthi. The nostrils are somewhat more elevated.

Specimens in the collection are as follows: KUMNH No. 24741 Turrialba, Cartago Province; Nos. 36482-88, 36699 Suretka, Limon Province; No. 37031 Hanano, Limon Province; Nos. 34104-34106 from 15 km. WSW San Isidro del General, San Jose Province.


The University Science Bulletin

Fig. 8. Uyla houlcngeri (Cope). Upper (iuuri-. KUMN'H NO. •■>41()6, snout- vent leret'i. 45.4; lower figure, No. •34105, snout-vent length, 45. Both from 15 km. WSW San Isidro del General, San Jose Province, C. R.

Herpetological Fauna of Costa Rica


Hylo microcephala microcepJiala Cope (Fig. 9)

Ilyla microcephala Cope, Proc. Aiiur. Pliil. Soc, Apr. 1886, vol. 23, no. 122,, pp. 281-282 (type locality. Department of Chiriqui, Panama, "along a mountain stream").

A large series of specimens of Hylo m. microcephala KUMNH Nos. 32172-32206 was taken at Golfito, Puntarenas Province, and represent, I believe, the first record of the species for Costa

Fig. 9. Hyla microcephala microce))hahi Cope. L pper figure, KUMNH No. 32184 A : aetual snout-vent length, 22.2 mm; lower figure. No. 32172 9, length, 28.6. Both from C^)lfito, Puntarenas Province, C. R.

24 The University Science Bulletin

Rica. Specimens were breeding in small temporary pools one to five inches deep, September 6-9, 1952.

Diagnosis: A diminutive species characterized by a very much widened third finger; a pair of brown lines from anterior part of eye running down middle of back; a narrow dorsolateral brown line; toes four-fifths webbed; outer fingers one-third to two-fifths webbed; head small; vomerine teeth between choanae not or scarcely extending behind their posterior level.

Description of KUMNH No. S2172: Head width (8.5 mm.) slightly greater than length (8.2 mm.), not or scarcely greater than body width; width