aid oe TU:

nat . yy : (\ ‘ae i A ee, i

i. A ow " fa s a) j Rh

ANNUAL REPORT

OF THE

BOARD OF REGENTS

OF THE

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION,

SHOWING

THE OPERATIONS, EXPENDITURES, AND CONDITION OF THE INSTITUTION

FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1897.

Bec) RE

ies NATIONAL MUSEUM. Part: £6

WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

7902.

AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE PUBLIC PRINTING AND BINDING, AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC DOCUMENTS.

Approved January 12, 1895.

“Of the Report of the Smithsonian Institution, ten thousand copies; one thousand copies for the Senate, two thousand for the House, five thousand for distribution by the Smithsonian Institution, and two thousand for distribution by the National Museum.”’

It

A MEMORIAL

OF

GEORGE BROWN GOODE,

TOGETHER WITH

A SPE ECITON OF HIS PAPERS

ON

MUSEUMS

AND ON THE

HISTORY OF SCIENCE IN AMERICA.

WASHINGTON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

LOO1,

INGE ROW CLT ON.

The influence of Doctor George Brown Goode on the growth and character of the United States National Museum was profound, and it extended to museum development in all parts of the world. It is desirable that an account of his life and services should appear, together with reprints of his valuable papers on American science and public museums, as well as several on related subjects that have never been published, in this portion of the Smithsonian report devoted to the work of the National Museum. Most of these papers appeared originally in publications not easily accessible to students, and all reprints have long since been distributed.

GEORGE BROWN GOODE.

Every student of nature the world over has profited by the work of Doctor Goode. Everyone interested in the advancement of science and in the development of museums as the graphic representatives of history and science has been and will be encouraged and assisted because he lived and worked. Every person can emulate his example of right living and honest service with gain individually and as a member of the community and of the body politic, and every Virginian can point with pride to the fact that Doctor Goode’s ancestors were from that historic State.

Personally I knew him as the man of science, the museum adminis- trator, the patriot, the valued adviser, and the loyal friend. Two years have passed since his death, and I feel the personal and public loss more and more. No one has come to take his place in many of the fields of his activity. Science, and particularly Government scientific institutions, will long miss the wholesome influence that he exerted on the minds of scientific and public men. But all that could be said by me has been spoken by those whose tributes follow. We loved the man, and we cherish his memory in secret thought and honor it in the written words of this memorial volume.

CHARLES D. WALCOTT. v

oS et . > ry

CONTENTS.

MEMORIAL MEETING.

Page SEDC EIGET SEU a ache ree cit Peel A 2a gba PU 3 SLI EE NTT 8 cs BR cat Uo Mr nh ce ee 4 Introductory remarks. By Gardiner Greene Hubbard...................... 5 Opening Address. By Gammel: Pierpont Langley... fo... 0.2 Ses eke. a Goode as a historian and citizen. By William Lyne Wilson ................ 13 Goode asa naturalist. By Henry Fairfield Osborn. ....-2.....5.....0..-00. 17 Goode’s activities in relation to American science, By William Healey Dall. 25 Resolutions and messaves Of syimoathy: ..jcovicc cc ov 10 bbs does dedecce cnet oc. 33 Memoir of George Brown Goode. By Samuel Pierpont Langley ............ 39 PAPERS BY GEORGE BROWN GOODE.

Musciin-bastory and Musenins of History ..... icc. osce esac ceaccescdess sets 63 ihe Genesis of the United States National Museum ............2.c..0ce. ese 83 The Principles of Museum Administration ........... Sele ait ere irs at ie 193 Pee RMSeMINS Ol CCF MEGER 2 c0 blocs sna Dae oh soe sinly hac oheweceh cnbinnee. 241 The Origin of the National Scientific and Educational Institutions of the

"SUSE YS Chee STS RTS Ae Re ce a no ai Se yn 263 mie Merimnames of Natural History in America. 9.00.3. 00.. fess beni ea ceation 357 ewer imines On Aten Can SCIeNCE)... cals sms oe uae skool sues lee eieee 407 The First National Scientific Congress (Washington, April, 1844) and its Con-

nection with the Organization of the American Association ............... 467

The Published Writings of George Brown Goode. By Randolph Iltyd Geare. 479

VII

19. 20.

List OF PLATES:

Facing page. FRONTISPIECE. George Brown Goode (1857-1896), assistant secretary of the

Smithsonian Institution. From a photograph by T. W. Smillie........

. John James Abert (1787-1863), chief of U. S. Topographical Engineers.

Brom a ctechenoraviay: My [. BUELTE. 25.6 afew c)sre nine oe sieiois sore dele 8

. Louis Agassiz (1807-1873), naturalist. Froma steel engraving of a painting. . John James Audubon (1780-1851), naturalist. From a photograph ofa

OR Gk pele nya Me TOE A ROO a ets a. wih jaja oth le evi ion toe w ooeue ete oicann aio ctoee

. Don Felix d’Azara (1746-1811), naturalist. From an engraving by Lizars. . Alexander Dallas Bache (1806-1867), superintendent U. S. Coast Survey.

CESecatine co gOUTOEO PT CNY Uh Oly he OA UIAELIND. «haa 5) 3) <b cit ah ni o's: oc 090) clan %, sbalnin «'avq.5S udlolets

. Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823-1887), secretary of the Smithsonian Insti-

tution, *Hrom a photograpl by -T. W.. Siiillie . 0. ..20% <r as op ene e ewe

. Joel Barlow (1754-1812), author of the Columbiad. From an engraving

by ne Sica ot Apatite: Dy ODER ITO acc) c cee e-s/swis eviews e's 5 ss

. Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard (1809-1889), president of Columbia

College, New York. Froman engraving by E. G. Williams and Brother.

. John Gross Barnard (1815-1882), army engineer. From an engraving by

IN 5 TEs TRUS TR CE ee ks oe et arte ea os run olen ter Ri le Re A mol oe

. Benjamin Smith Barton (1766-1815), physician and naturalist. From an

SMR Leet MU Tava GOREN Geert geley ol hate sie’ asks! ayei Mole: Pievsieys, nie areicuuim ofeimuessgakce esas

. William Bartram (1739-1823), botanist. From an engraving by T. B.

Wi elchion dmparitiie py (Co We PEAle oe or cle so aici s ass a(ce le cas adie «myers

. Nathaniel Bowditch (1773-1824), mathematician, From an engraving by

J. Gross of a drawing by J. B. Longacre of the bust by Frazee..........

. Mathew Carey (1760-1839), author. From an engraving by Samuel Sar-

EAI OUI PACE” Dy [OHM NCAMIC cs rrclecis oie a'erare vows Sine ax cin ctera’ate = uta ei cis

. Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), French explorer. From an engraving

by J. A. O’Neill of a painting by Hamel of the Moncornet portrait. ...

. Pierre Francois Xavier de Charlevoix (1682-1761), French explorer. From

aivenoravanie Dy, poAe ONCML : 5c. tan o[S ap» 2,0 claves cyyee Gime sae’ es

. De Witt Clinton (1769-1828), chief promoter of the Erie Canal. From an

engraving by A. B. Durand of a painting by Ingham...................

. George Hammell Cook (1818-1889), state geologist of New Jersey. From

SUMP Tek NEM stein apa Wie 0:6 «iy, Eye cre ee ars yeYeo es 2 mnayes Ske Sunjmeleyeis eran «om ovaral wanes

. Darius Nash Couch (1822-1897), army explorer. From an engraving by

ee AES TAECLE Ot AM OIOLO SLADE ciory cial gievatbic.e’> ela a/ewicin letra ncg.aem tis! s (cer ale; tynieie a Charles Patrick Daly (1816-1899), geographer. From a photograph..... James Dwight Dana (1813-1895), geologist. From an engraving by

PEs PRSEINUE LYRR eagreecte) oni ern Sess ora/2In ci nlals)« sisiate, « Fm b% nici nipus,eT0'E sala He o-0/0

102 106 110 I1t4 118 122 126 130

134 138

142

t The illustrations that accompany this volume are arranged alphabetically.

Ix

21.

51. 52.

. Eben Norton Horsford (1818-1893), chemist. From an engraving . David Hosack (1769-1835), botanist. From an engraving by A. B. Durand

Lust of Plates.

Facing page.

Charles Henry Davis (1807-1877), naval explorer. From an engraving by, Ave Hes Ratehicne sre 5'eia: =, Susie ard Setetbtan) 38.6 ted eget eda te ner ice Pe ete ene ae cae

. Edwin Hamilton Davis (1811-1888), ethnologist. From a copy of a

g0)SN0) Corey 0) | Re AREAS Micro H OH GGC DUA mode saUaboaddasenbecdanes

3. John William Draper (1811-1882), physicist. From an engraving by

George H. Perine « . «.:2)5ti\ Saray eleventere see exercts.ar eet ate

. Peter Stephen Duponceau (1760-1844), philologist. From a lithograph. . . Timothy Dwight (1752-1817), president of Yale College. From an

enpraving® by Mreeniain a: cp wieteccs Sie eee ee en ole teen eee ete ee

. James Buchanan Eads (1820-1887), civil engineer. From an engraving

by AL Ee Ritchie «oe 2ln i G/sdGele Sistas Seen a cutee vie ee

. Amos Eaton (1776-1842), botanist. From an engraving by A. H. Ritchie. 28.

Andrew Ellicott (1758-1820), astronomer and civil engineer. From a photograph of a painting

. George William Featherstonhaugh (1780-1866), explorer and geologist.

Front a photosraph ss <.5.5.. 25 = deaeiote a oles keene wate an oa ee

. William Ferrell (1817-1891), meteorologist. From a photograph ....... . John Reinhold (1729-1798) and John George (1754-1794) Forster, natu-

ralists. From an engraving by D. Berger

. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), scientist. From an etching by Albert

o; ss) 0,2 aa 010 6(e v6, ee leis, 5,9" s § Se) abalial aie

. John Charles Frémont (1813-1890), army explorer, From an engraving

by T. Knight of a photograph

© 0) @) 6,6 ae! ieie)me (eves wusile © Ole «60 a © ee) 86% sae oldie in

. George Gibbs (1815-1873), ethnologist. From a photograph............ . James Melville Gilliss (1811-1865), astronomer. From a photograph.... . Augustus Addison Gould (1805-1866), conchologist. From an engraving

by Wright Smith

. Asa Gray (1810-1888), botanist. From a wood engraving by G. Kruell.. . Jacob Green (1790-1841), chemist. From an engraving by J. Sartain of

a painting by H. Bridgport

. Arnold Guyot (1807-1884), geographer. From a photograph ........... . Stephen Hales (1677-1761), botanist. From a steel engraving . Charles Frederic Hartt (1840-1878), naturalist and explorer. From a

wood cut engraving of a photograph

. Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler (1770-1843), first superintendent of the U.S.

Coast Survey. From a photograph of a painting

. Isaac Israel Hayes (1832-1881), Arctic explorer. From an engraving by

Jackman

. Joseph Henry (1799-1878), first secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. . . Edward Hitchcock (1793-1864), geologist. From a photograph of a

painting

of a painting by Thomas Sully

8's) 0 0 0 5 ole 0c eo. n 0) aleve! se ote imi siw oe © Onl alee) wie) aiele)e dels

. Andrew Atkinson Humphreys (1810-1883), army engineer. From an

engraving by A. H. Ritchie

@ 6 am 6 ela le vie ele mise eo) 6 eel sks étule Sintale a) aiatuPelein se) o\nl

. David Humphreys (1752-1818), poet and diplomatist. From an engraving

m6 (6 80 eee) 6 i) 0) e) elie) ec) x wTe)\e. 6) np 60 \.6 0 ©

by G. Parker of a painting by Gilbert Stuart

. Elisha Kent Kane (1820-1857), Arctic explorer. From an engraving by

T. B. Welch of a daguerreotype portrait by Brady..................... Benjamin Henry Latrobe (1767-1820), civilengineer. From a lithograph. Isaac Lea (1792-1886), conchologist. From an etching by S. J. Ferris....

146 150

154 158

162

166 170

174

178 182

186 190 196 200

204

208 212

216 220 224 228

232

236 240

244 248

252 256 260 266

270 274

53.

54. 55-

56. 57- 59. 59. 60.

61. 62.

63. 64.

65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. ik 72. 73- 74. 75: 76. 77:

78. 79-

80. 81.

: 82.

List of Plates.

ancl

Facing page.

Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809), explorer. From an engraving by Strick- EET GU ca Shi CSS COS OPI Ieuan ae se re eo James Harvey Linsley (1787-1843), naturalist. From a steel engraving. . Stephen Harriman Long (1784-1864), army explorer. From an engraving by J.C Butire of a-dapuerrcotype portrait... 02... es. sce cce cscs anaes William Maclure (1763-1840), geologist. From an engraving of a painting eae UO Ht aS A bys AN reer the apn wt ae ie cv aes hoe aCe kee tks eet. Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-1873), geographer. From an engraving PigneecOn ens AGL iio: ater tn <0 ae ee itis te Re ete cianach eR ake does Frangois André Michaux (1770-1855), botanist. From an engraving by Hee Mallet a painting by Rembrandt Peale .. 52.0. 6...0.60 aces ese Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel (1809-1862), astronomer. From an engraving nt CRN ET SSSA i oon hen Be pac ae ea Samuel Latham Mitchill (1764-1831), ‘‘Nestor of American Science,”’ Brom an-enerayvine of a.painting by H) Inman: ..5. 2.0.2... oe: sec usee Samuel George Morton (1799-1851), physician. From an engraving..... Albert James Myer (1827-1880), chief signal officer, U.S. A. From an Sera vine Ky WML WEBI fais ci sc esnlcd, (es nial «%<..\bx ee sete suc died John Strong Newberry (1822-1892), geologist. From a photograph...... Eliphalet Nott (1773-1866), president of Union College. From an engrav- ing by ALB. Durand of a painting by “Ames... << 0.4.2. esccnec cles us. Thomas Nuttall (1786-1859), naturalist. From an engraving by Thom-

Denison Olmsted (1791-1859), physicist. From an engraving by A. H. Ji GI US casei Ie SBR saclay eee ae John Grubb Parke (1827-1900), army explorer. From an engraving by FAN TLS OSS SIMD Ore ae, A A iy PR a Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827), artist. From a painting by himself. . Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860), artist. From a painting by Thomas Sully. Benjamin Peirce (1809-1880), mathematician. From a photograph ...... Timothy Pickering (1745-1829), statesman. From an engraving by ‘I. B. Welctola patmbine by Gilbert Stuart. ois. 52.2. ese hk aca cheese Zebulon Montgomery Pike (1779-1813), army explorer. From an engrav- ELAS VU SCVaT Tie gf el Se le en a Joel Roberts Poinsett (1779-1851), statesman. From an engraving by

[ode DOSES a ariraiae SO a tet Gag eae, ae eee ea era Joseph Priestley (1773-1804), chemist. From an engraving by W. Holl of Bgpaleleit et yp Gull DEL ENOt ARE: Seis Serle ci iareic co. 2 oo cia Madnick Shae Samuel Purchas (1577-1628), author of ‘‘ Purchas, his pilgrimage.’’ From SNA S Te Ge Msc Teao, 2ed & 19) Sa Oo. 1-2 eae a

Constantine Samuel Rafinesque (1784-1842), naturalist. From a wood cuLreproduction of a steel engraving. ©. 6. occ .' coe cee nie ced dedecses eo. William C. Redfield (1789-1857), meteorologist. From an engraving by Beg ele asthe nah one Sal Yay MBS Mc tated ceafionctsiclh is Shsbusertotccat otek aed, Charles Valentine Riley (1843-1895), entomologist. From a photograph. David Rittenhouse (1732-1796), astronomer. From an engraving by J. B. PoMegere obapaimtine byoG WePeale.< . deals sin sccec<cusd cceseaic Gaonh John Rodgers (1812-1882), naval explorer. From an engraving by A. H. Pt Pee ae reer eto ee eR eral) ala mp op ba te Oe Henry Darwin Rogers (1808-1866), geologist. From an engraving by SESE ETE EI S01 ea, rpc ESCA Ie ge William Barton Rogers (1804-1882), founder of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From an engraving by H. W. Smith....................

278 282

286 290 294 298 302

306 310

314 318

XII List of Plates.

83

84.

85. 86.

87.

88.

>

gl. 92. 93-

94. 95.

96. 97-

98.

99.

100. IOI. 102. 103. 104. 105.

106. 107.

ro8.

T09.

89. go.

Facing page.

. Thomas Say (1787-1834), naturalist. From an engraving by Hoppner Meyer of a painting by Wood .........---seeee eee eee ete eee teen ees Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (1793-1864), naturalist and explorer. From an engraving by Illman and Sons... ...... + e+ eeeee seen eee eect cere teens Pietro Angelo Secchi (1818-1878), astronomer. From a wood cut...... Benjamin Silliman (1779-1864), chemist. From a mezzotint by P. N. Whelpley .: 0.2.5.0 cc csc cece combs amen cama sis = nim gman eee ve=er etisiats Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1752), founder of British Museum. From a steel GH TAVIDG < cs-m sicicje oe 4 nveie o.arnin Hime slsieicrs he mista oteerei nee Retell ee James Edward Smith (1759-1828), botanical writer. From a photograph Of AN ENGTAVING 2.0... cece teeters eee coe ee es seeeneecnanesesesesses John Smith (1579-1632), English explorer. From an engraving ....... Jakob Steendam (1616-1662), poet and naturalist. From a lithograph of a steel engraving .....-..000secceecees sts rege same eee ise earee a aieeeinls Isaac Ingalls Stevens (1818-1862), army explorer. From an engraving by J.C. Buttre oo... nce oe cia we werere = eieeels prea saree ainsi ete Isaiah Thomas (1749-1831), founder of the Antiquarian Society in Worcester, Mass. From an engraving by J. R. Smith................ Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford (1753-1814), chemist and physi- cist. From an engraving by T. Miiller.............-.-- sees ee eeeeeee John Torrey (1796-1873), botanist. From a lithograph...............- John Tradescant (1608-1662), traveler and naturalist. From a reproduc- tion of aniold ‘engraving... a..2 ccs see as oe eee ee eens lee rear Gerard Troost (1776-1850), mineralogist and geologist. From a steel QMO TA VINE 55 oc Ses she nsene Boum # Speed eae Ie oes eee eater eae William Petit Trowbridge (1828-1892), civil and mechanical engineer. From a photograph... ......:sceescee dence esc cee scene cereserncacecs Stephen Van Rensselaer (1765-1839), founder of the Van Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. From an engraving by G. Parker of a minia- ture by C: Braset 6. 0. 2.0/0 ecaie vie cteini ett aie aie) oi =i) aie) wate iote etme ener Garcilaso de la Vega (1539-1616), Peruvian historian. From an early engraving by Carmona... 2.252. ceens «20 0)ee em isisleicie an iierslo sible niatals ielere Benjamin Waterhouse (1754-1846), physician. From an engraving by Re REEVES srarc ssi tie. 0. dchrelt wie iais wo eye siete: s) © opebels @irpciste)aketstota ters i afetetst=leiatelat=]- Voter Francis Wayland (1796-1865), president of Brown University. From an enpraving by. J. C. Buttre « «3.0.2 2.27 os sein ee vie bien ieee tener David Ames Wells (1828-1898), political economist. From an engraving by EL; WY Srnrttla © 5. oc.5.< 5 aha 008 oct kus. 0 @ wrote ereye. eats ale tetera Ree eee eee William Dwight Whitney (1827-1894), philologist. From an engraving by J. GC. Bettre oc sis oa ese thse caters ayoymie ie temo: ote ye emt eens eel eee Charles Wilkes (1798-1877), naval explorer. From an engraving by INP RACH £ 25,52 covela o-0i 010 ore reheusieoleteioneleseieloheretels ofokohen olen telel=Dieteletntaet ast ete Hugh Williamson (1735-1819), promoter of scientific enterprises. From an etching by Albert Rosenthal of a painting by J. Trumbull ......... Alexander Wilson (1766-1813), ornithologist. From an old engraving. . Caspar Wistar (1761-1818), professor of anatomy. From an engraving by J.B Longacre ofa painting by iB. OS® 2.7 cto sice teem eee Jeffries Wyman (1814-1874), comparative anatomist. From an engrav- ine by Iy.'S; Pundersoms sco cec 2c ch nove crete ieiete eels eteietebelene ere ete ek ete ene Edward Livingston Youmans (1821-1887), founder of Popular Science Monthly. From an engraving by C. Schlecht.............. aunt sss

398

4o2 406

410 414

418 422

426 430 434

438 442

446 450

454

458 462 466 470 474 478 482

486 490

494 498

500

Renee) Ra

OF THE

MEETING HELD IN COMMEMORATION OF THE LIFE AND SERVICES

OF GEORGE BROWN GOODE,

Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, in charge of the United States National Museum.

MEMORIAL EXERCISES.

On Saturday evening, February 13, 1897, a meeting was held in the lecture room of the United States National Museum to commemorate the life and services of George Brown Goode. Over four hundred persons were assembled, representing the seven scientific societies, the patriotic and historical societies, of Washington, the American Philosophical Society, and the American Society of Naturalists.

The programme was as follows:

MEMORIAL MEETING.

You ARE invited to attend a Memorial Meeting, under the auspices of the Joint Commission of the Scientific Societies, and in co-operation with the Patriotic and Historical Societies, of Washington, to commem- orate the life and services of

GEORGE BRowN GOoopDk, LL.D.,

Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, in charge of the United States National Museum.

The meeting will be held inthe Lecture Room of the National Museum, Saturday evening, February 13, 1897, at 8 o’clock.

Washington, February 6, 1897,

PROGRAMME. Introductory remarks by the President of the Joint Commission, Hon. GARDINER G. HUBBARD

Address by the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution,

Dr. S: 2. LANGLEY

Goode as a Historian and Citizen,

Hon. WILLIAM L. WILSON

Goode as a Naturalist,

Pror. HENRY F. OSBORN

Goode’s Activities in Relation to American Science

Pror. WILLIAM H. DaLL

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

By GARDINER GREENE HUBBARD, President of the Joint Commission of the Scientific Socteties.

This day was selected as the day to pay tribute to Doctor G. Brown Goode, as it is his natalday. On my return to Boston from the maritime provinces last summer, I heard with deep regret of the death, a few days before, of Doctor George Brown Goode. ‘To me he had been a friend; to me his death was a deep personal loss and sorrow. ‘To him I have turned for counsel, for advice, for sympathy, and his response was prompt, earnest, and cordial. Do I not express the feeling of all who knew him? Never was there a truer and more intelligent counselor, a more sympathetic friend, a more ready helper, a more kindly nature.

None knew him but to love him, None named him but to praise.

It was at Twin Oaks, one of the last Sundays in June, that he spent the last morning with us. He walked with us through the grounds’ twining ways, pointing out the beauties of the flowers, which he was so quick to see, and showing a knowledge of the habits and needs of every tree and shrub. He passed through the grounds to the library and looked over a portfolio of recent Japanese prints. He showed a perfect familiarity with them, selecting the good, rejecting the poor, and know- ing the value of each. With books he was equally familiar, and more than once suggested some rare book that I should like to obtain. Books were his friends and companions. His reading was extensive and varied. He knew my pedigree better than I, and corrected mistakes that I had made in preparing my genealogy for the Society of Colonial Wars, in which organization he was deeply interested. His mind was versatile, his interests widespread, his tastes refined, his judgment correct. He was a true lover of nature, of art, of beauty everywhere. He heralded to us the first coming of the birds, he knew their notes, and welcomed the opening of the spring blossoms. He was alive to every bit of earth and sky. With all the pressure of numerous and varied cares and respon- sibilities, he lent a ready ear, a helping hand, to all who asked his aid. He would read and correct a manuscript for a friend, conduct another

5

6 Memorial of George Brown Goode.

through the Museum and open to him its treasures, or prepare a scheme for an exposition at Chicago or Atlanta. Into the work of the Museum he threw his whole heart and life. He knew it in all its strength and weakness, its deficiencies, its wealth, its possibilities, and therefore believed in its glorious future. He knew it in all its different depart- ments—in its minute details. Hewelcomed every new object that was brought into the Museum and directed its disposition. He refused the appointment of Commissioner of Fisheries and remained in charge of the Museum at a smaller salary, because he felt his services were more needed there. He was urged last summer to go to the Seal Islands, a trip he would gladly have taken, but he was reluctant to leave his work. He remained to die at his post.

Others will speak of him in his public relations; others can estimate his scientific attainments and the debt of gratitude the Museum owes to his faithful and skillful administration; others will weave and lay upon his tomb wreaths and garlands. I bring but a few violets, the expres- sion of my personal love and esteem. He was a friend whom I loved and whom I miss from my daily life.

OPENING ADDRESS. ©

By SAMUEL PIRRPONT LANGLEY,

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution.

While I am aware that it is only fitting that I should say something here about one I knew so well as the late Doctor Goode, I feel the occa- sion a trying one, for he was so dear a friend that my very nearness and sense of a special bereavement must be a sufficient excuse for asking your indulgence, since I can not speak of him even yet without pain, and I must say but little.

Here are some who knew him still longer than I, and many who can estimate him more justly in all his scientific work, and to those who can perform this task'so much better, I leave it. I will only try to speak, however briefly, from a personal point of view, and chiefly of those moral qualities in which our friendship grew, and of some things apart from his scientific life which this near friendship showed me.

As I first remember him it seems to me, looking back in the light of more recent knowledge, that it was these moral qualities which I first appreciated, and that if there was one which more than another formed the basis of his character it was sincerity—a sincerity which was the ground of a trust and confidence such as could be instinctively given, even from the first, only to an absolutely loyal and truthful nature. In him duplicity of motive even, seemed hardly possible, for, though he was in a good sense, worldly wise, he walked by a single inner light, and this made his road clear even when he was going over obscure ways, and made him often a safer guide than such wisdom alone would have done. He was, I repeat, a man whom you first trusted instinctively, but also one in whom every added knowledge explained and justified this confidence.

This sincerity, which pervaded the whole character, was united with an unselfishness so deep-seated that it was not conscious of itself, and was, perhaps, not always recognized by others. It is asubject of regret to me, now it is too late, that I seem myself to have thus taken it too much as a matter of course in the past, at times like one I remember, when, as I afterwards learned, he was suffering from wretched health, _ which he concealed so successfully while devoting himself to my help, that I had no suspicion till long after of the effort this must have cost

7

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8 Memorial of George Brown Goode.

him. He lived not for himself, but for others and for his work. There was no occasion when he could not find time for any call to aid, and the Museum was something to which he was willing to give of his own slender means.

Connected with this was an absence of any wish to personally domi- nate others or to force his own personal ways upon them. It is pleas- antest to live our own life if we can, and with him every associate and subordinate had a moral liberty that is not always enjoyed, for apart from his official duties, he obtruded himself upon no one with advice, and his private opinion was to be sought, not proffered.

His insight into character was notable, and it was perhaps due as much as anything to a power of sympathy that produced a gentleness in his private judgment of others, which reminded one of the saying, that if we could comprehend everything we could pardon everything. He com- prehended and he pardoned.

Associate this tolerance of those weaknesses in others, even which he did not share, with the confidence he inspired and with this clear insight, and we have some idea of the moral qualities which tempered the authority he exercised in his administrative work, and which were the underlying causes of his administrative excellence. I do not know whether a power of reading character is more intuitive or acquired; at any rate without it men may be governed, but not in harmony, and must be driven rather than led. Doctor Goode was in this sense a leader, quite apart from his scientific competence. Every member of the force he controlled, not only among his scientific associates, but down to the humblest employees of the Museum, was an individual to him, with traits of character which were his own and not another’s, and which were recognized in all dealings. And in this I think he was peculiar, for I have known no man who seemed to possess this sympathetic insight in such a degree; and certainly it was one of the sources of his strength.

I shall have given, however, a wrong idea of him if I leave anyone under the impression that this sympathy led to weakness of rule. He knew how to say ‘‘no,’’ and said it as often as any other, and would reprehend where occasion called, in terms the plainest and most uncom- promising a man could use, speaking so when he thought it necessary, even to those whose association was voluntary, but who somehow were not alienated, as they would have been by such censure from another. ‘‘He often refused me what I most wanted,” said one of his staff to me, ‘‘but Inever went to sleep without having in my own mind forgiven him.’’

I have spoken of some of the moral qualities which made all rely upon him, and which were the foundation of his ability to deal with men. To them was joined that scientific knowledge without which he could not have been a Museum administrator, but even with this knowledge he could not have been what he was, except from the fact that he loved the Museum and its administration above every other pursuit, even, I think,

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above his own special branch of biological science. He was a man of the widest interests I have ever known, so that whatever he was speak- ing of at any moment, seemed to be the thing he knew best. It was often hard to say, then, what love predominated; but I think that he had, on the whole, no pleasure greater than that in his Museum administra- tion, and that, apart from his family interests and joys, this was the deepest love of all. He refused advantageous offers to leave it, though I ought to gratefully add here, that his knowledge of my reliance upon him and his unselfish desire to aid me, were also among his determining motives in remaining. ‘They were natural ones in such a man.

What were the results of this devotion may be comprehensively seen in the statement that in the year in which he was first enrolled among the officers of the Museum the entries of collections numbered less than 200,000, and the staff, including honorary collaborators and all subordi- nates, thirteen persons, and by comparing these early conditions with what they became under his subsequent management.

Professor Baird at the first was an active manager, but from the time that he became Secretary of the Institution he devolved more and more of the Museum duties on Doctor Goode, who for nine years preceding his death was practically in entire charge of it. It is strictly within the truth then to say that the changes which have taken place in the Museum in that time are more his work than any other man’s, and when we find that the number of persons employed has grown from thirteen to over two hundred, and the number of specimens from 200,000 to over 3,000,000, and consider that what the Museum now is, its scheme and arrangement, with almost all which make it distinctive; are chiefly Doctor Goode’s, we have some of the evidence of his administrative capacity. He was fitted to rule and administer both men and things, and the Museum under his management was, as someone has called it, ‘““A house full of ideas and a nursery of living thought.”’

Perhaps no one can be a ‘‘naturalist,’’ in the larger sense, without being directly a lover of Nature and of all natural sights and sounds. One of his family says:

He taught us all the forest trees, their fruits and flowers in season, and to know them when bare of leaves by their shapes; all the wayside shrubs, and even the flow- ers of the weeds; all the wild birds and their notes, and the insects. His ideal of an old age was to have a little place of his own ina mild climate, surrounded by his

books for rainy days, and friends who cared for plain living and high thinking, with a chance to help someone poorer than he.

He was a loving and quick observer, and in these simple natural joys his studies were his recreations, and were closely connected with his literary pursuits.

I have spoken of his varied interests and the singular fullness of his

-knowledge in fields apart from biologic research. He was a genealogist of professional completeness and exactitude, and a historian, and of him in

IO Memorial of George Brown Goode.

these capacities alone, a biography might be written; but his well-founded claim to be considered a literary man as well as a man of science, rests as much on the excellent English style; clear, direct, unpretentious, in which he has treated these subjects, as on his love of literature in general. I pass them, however, with this inadequate mention, from my incompetence to deal with him as a genealogist, and becayse his aspect as a historian will be presented by another; but while I could only partly follow him in his-genealogical studies, we had together, among other common tastes, that love of general literature just spoken of, and I, who have been a widely discursive reader, have never met a mind in touch with more far- away and disconnected points than his, nor one of more breadth and variety of reading, outside of the range of its own specialty. This read- ing was also, however, associated with a love of everything which could illustrate his special science on this literary side. The extent of this illustration is well shown by the wealth and aptness of quotation in the chapter headings of his American Fishes, his Game Fishes of North America, and the like, and in his knowledge of everything thus remotely connected with his ichthyologic researches, from St. Anthony’s Sermon to Fishes, to the Literature of Fish Cookery, while in one of his earliest papers, written at nineteen, his fondness for Isaac Walton and his familiarity with him, are evident. He had a love for everything to do with books, such as specimens of printing and binding, and for etchings and engravings, and he was an omnivorous reader, but he read to collect, and oftenest in connection with the enjoyment of his outdoor life and all natural things. One of these unpublished collections, The Music of Nature, contains literally thousands of illustrated poems or passages from his favorite poets.

These were his recreations, and among these little excursions into literature, ‘‘the most pathetic, and yet in some respects the most con- solatory,’’? says his literary executor, ‘‘seems to have been suggested by an article on the literary advantages of weak health, for with this thought in mind he had collected from various sources accounts of literary work done in feeble health, which he brought together under the title Mens Sana in Corpore /zsano.’’

Still another collection was of poems relating to music, of which he was an enthusiastic lover. He sang and played well, but this I only learned after his death, for it was characteristic of his utter absence of display, that during our nine years’ intimacy he never let me know that he had such accomplishments; though that he had a large acquaintance with musical instruments I was, of course, aware from the collections he had made.

We must think of him with added sympathy, when we know that he lost the robust health he once enjoyed, at that early time during his first connection with the Museum, when he gave himself with such uncalcu- lating devotion to his work as to overtask every energy and permanently impair his strength. It was only imperfectly restored when his excessive

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labors in connection with the Centennial Exposition brought on another attack, and this condition was renewed at times through my acquaintance with him. When we see what he has done, we must remember, with now useless regret, under what conditions all this was accomplished.

I have scarcely alluded to his family life, for of his home we are not to speak here, further than to say that he was eminently a domestic man, finding the highest joys that life brought him with his family and children. Of those who hear me to-night most knew him personally, and will bear me witness, from his daily life, that he was a man one felt to be pure in heart as he was clean of speech, always sociable, always considerate of his associates, a most suggestive and helpful man; an eminently unselfish man—imay I not now say that he was what we then did not recognize, in his simplicity, a gveaf man?

It is a proof [says one who knew him] of the unconsciousness and unobstrusive- ness which chracterized Doctor Goode in all his associations and efforts that, until his death came, few, if any, even of his intimate friends, realized the degree to which he had become necessary to them. All acknoweledged his ability, relied on his sincerity, knew how loyally he served every cause he undertook. The news of his death showed them for the first time what an element of strength he was in the work and ambitions of each of them. With a sudden shock they saw that their futures would have less of opportunity, less of enthusiasm and meaning, now that he was gone.

He has gone; and on the road where we are all going, there has not preceded us a man who lived more for others, a truer man, a more loyal friend.

Rahs oy 6 ives ea

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ohm

GOODE AS A HISTORIAN AND CITIZEN.

By WILLIAM LYNE WILSON, Postmaster-General of the United States.

It has been most appropriately assigned to those who saw, and were privileged to see, more of Doctor Goode than myself, in his domestic life and in daily official intercourse, to speak of his virtues and his most charming and lofty traits as a man; and to speak of him in his chosen field of science must be assigned to those who do not, like myself, stand outside of the pale of scientific attainment. The somewhat humbler part is mine to speak of Doctor Goode in those relations in life in which he was probably less known and less thought of than as a man of science or in other fields of his distinguished attainment.

The German professor, of whom it is related that on his deathbed he mourned the waste of his life work in expending his energies on the entire Greek language instead of concentrating them on the dative case, gives a ludicrous and extreme illustration of that necessity for division of labor and of specialization which all men recognize in this age of ours. In the field of intellectual, as in that of mechanical, occupation, the “‘jack-of-all-trades’’ is master of none; and while the rule for the intellectual man and for the great student must always be to endeavor to know everything of something and something of everything—at least of everything connected with that something—it is becoming more and more difficult in the compass of human life and human attainment to live up to that rule.

Doctor Goode was honored in his own country and in other countries as an eminent man of science, and deservedly so honored, and his lasting fame must rest upon his solid and substantial contributions to science and the advancement of human knowledge, on his eminent success as an administrator of scientific organizations, and on that work which all his life shows to have been most congenial to him—the bringing of science down to the interest and instruction of the people.

He was a richly endowed man, first with that capacity and that . resistless bent toward the work in which he attained his great distinction that made it a perennial delight to him; but he was scarcely less richly

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14 Memorial of George Brown Goode.

endowed in his more unpretending and large human sympathies, and it was this latter that distinguished him as a citizen and a historian.

It has been said time and again, with more or less truth, of the great English universities, and possibly of similar great schools in our own country, that they tend to make a caste, and that men who come out from them find themselves separated from the great mass of their fellow- citizens, out of sympathy with the thought, the action, and the daily life of the generation in which they move. ‘This certainly could never be said of Doctor Goode. As a citizen he was full of patriotic American enthusiasm. He understood, as all must understand who look with seriousness upon the great problems that confront a free people and who measure the difficulties of those problems—he understood that at least one preparation for the discharge of the duties of American citizenship was the general education of the people, and so he advocated as far as possible bringing within the reach of all the people not only the oppor- tunities but the attractions and the incitements to intellectual living.